tm2124472-1_s3 - none - 6.0469026s
TABLE OF CONTENTS
As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on August 10, 2021
Registration No. 333-        
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
MARKER THERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
45-4497941
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
3200 Southwest Freeway, Suite 2500
Houston, Texas 77027
(713) 400-6400
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Peter Hoang
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director
Marker Therapeutics, Inc.
3200 Southwest Freeway, Suite 2500
Houston, Texas 77027
(713) 400-6400
(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Divakar Gupta
Darren DeStefano
Madison A. Jones
Cooley LLP
55 Hudson Yards
New York, New York 10001
(212) 479-6000
From time to time after the effective date of this Registration Statement
(Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public)
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐

TABLE OF CONTENTS
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. ☐
CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE
Title of each class of securities to be registered
Amount to be
Registered
Proposed Maximum
Offering Price per Unit
Proposed Maximum
Aggregate
Offering Price
Amount of
Registration Fee(1)
Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share
(2)
(3)
(3)
Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share
(2)
(3)
(3)
Debt Securities
(2)
(3)
(3)
Warrants
(2)
(3)
(3)
Total
(2)
$ 300,000,000 $ 32,730
(1)
Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.
(2)
There are being registered hereunder such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, such indeterminate principal amount of debt securities and such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities as shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $300,000,000. If any debt securities are issued at an original issue discount, then the principal amount of such debt securities shall be in such greater amount as shall result in an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $300,000,000, less the aggregate dollar amount of all securities previously issued hereunder. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or in combination with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock and amount of debt securities as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act, the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends or similar transactions.
(3)
The proposed maximum aggregate offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the registrant in connection with the issuance by the registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3 under the Securities Act.
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment that specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act or until this registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains:

a base prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $300,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock, preferred stock, debt securities and/or warrants from time to time in one or more offerings; and

a sales agreement prospectus, which covers the offering, issuance and sale by the registrant of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $75,000,000 of the registrant’s common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated August 10, 2021, with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The sales agreement prospectus immediately follows the base prospectus. The $75,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the sales agreement prospectus is included in the $300,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by the registrant under the base prospectus. In connection with such offers and when accompanied by the base prospectus included in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, such sales agreement prospectus will be deemed a prospectus supplement to such base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC, any portion of the $75,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $300,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 10, 2021
PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_markertherapeutics-4clr.jpg]
$300,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Warrants
From time to time, we may offer and sell up to $300,000,000 of any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings. We may also offer securities as may be issuable upon conversion, redemption, repurchase, exchange or exercise of any securities registered hereunder, including any applicable anti-dilution provisions.
This prospectus provides a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you in connection with these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should carefully read this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as any documents incorporated by reference, before you invest in any of the securities being offered.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of any securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
We will sell these securities directly to investors, through agents designated from time to time or to or through underwriters or dealers, on a continuous or delayed basis. For additional information on the methods of sale, you should refer to the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus and in the applicable prospectus supplement. If any agents or underwriters are involved in the sale of any securities with respect to which this prospectus is being delivered, the names of such agents or underwriters and any applicable fees, commissions, discounts or over-allotment options will be set forth in a prospectus supplement. The price to the public of such securities and the net proceeds we expect to receive from such sale will also be set forth in a prospectus supplement.
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MRKR.” On August 6, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $2.07 per share. The applicable prospectus supplement will contain information, where applicable, as to any other listing on The Nasdaq Global Market or any securities market or other exchange of the securities, if any, covered by the prospectus supplement.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus we have authorized for use in connection with a specific offering, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus as described on page 6 of this prospectus.
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
The date of this prospectus is           , 2021.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
i
1
6
7
9
10
14
20
22
25
27
27
27
28
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is a part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration statement, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $300,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer.
Each time we sell securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will contain specific information about the terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in any documents that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should read this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, together with the information incorporated herein by reference as described under the heading “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference,” before investing in any of the securities offered.
THIS PROSPECTUS MAY NOT BE USED TO CONSUMMATE A SALE OF SECURITIES UNLESS IT IS ACCOMPANIED BY A PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT.
Neither we, nor any agent, underwriter or dealer has authorized any person to give any information or to make any representation other than those contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. This prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the registered securities to which they relate, nor do this prospectus, any applicable supplement to this prospectus or any related free writing prospectus constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy securities in any jurisdiction to any person to whom it is unlawful to make such offer or solicitation in such jurisdiction.
You should not assume that the information contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is accurate on any date subsequent to the date set forth on the front of the document or that any information we have incorporated by reference is correct on any date subsequent to the date of the document incorporated by reference, even though this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus is delivered, or securities are sold, on a later date.
This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contain summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
 
i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SUMMARY
This summary highlights selected information from this prospectus and does not contain all of the information that you need to consider in making your investment decision. You should carefully read the entire prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, including the risks of investing in our securities discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. You should also carefully read the information incorporated by reference into this prospectus, including our financial statements and related notes, and the exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, before making your investment decision.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “the company” and “Marker Therapeutics” refer to Marker Therapeutics, Inc., formerly known as TapImmune, Inc., and its subsidiaries. We own various U.S. federal trademark applications and unregistered trademarks, including our company name. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and ™, but such references should not be construed as any indication that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.
Company Overview
Overview
We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company specializing in the development and commercialization of novel T cell-based immunotherapies and innovative peptide-based vaccines for the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumor indications. We developed our lead product candidates from our MultiTAA-specific T cell technology, which is based on the selective expansion of non-engineered, tumor-specific T cells that recognize tumor associated antigens, or TAAs, which are tumor targets, and then kill tumor cells expressing those targets. These T cells are designed to recognize multiple tumor targets to produce broad spectrum anti-tumor activity. We are advancing two pipelines of product candidates as part of our MultiTAA-specific T cell program: the autologous T cells for the treatment of lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or MM, and selected solid tumors and the allogeneic T cells for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL. Because we do not genetically engineer the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies, we believe that our product candidates are easier and less expensive to manufacture, have lower toxicities than current engineered chimeric antigen receptor, or CAR-T, and T cell receptor-based therapies and may provide patients with meaningful clinical benefit. We are also developing innovative peptide-based immunotherapeutic vaccines for the treatment of metastatic solid tumors.
We are pursuing post-transplant AML as the lead indication for our first company-sponsored
MultiTAA-specific T cell program. In April 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted orphan drug designation to MT-401 for the treatment of AML after receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplant. The MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy has been well tolerated in an ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial in AML and myelodysplastic syndrome, or MDS, conducted by our strategic partner Baylor College of Medicine, or BCM. As reported in a recent publication by Lulla et al., 11 of the 17 patients in the adjuvant disease setting dosed with the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy after receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or HSCT, never relapsed [median leukemia-free survival, or LFS, not reached at a median follow-up of 1.9 years], with 11 of 15 patients remaining alive (estimated two-year overall survival of 77%) at a median follow-up of 1.9 years post-infusion, which compares favorably with HSCT outcomes for risk-matched AML/MDS patients post-HSCT [median LFS of nine to 15 months and two-year survival probability of 42%]. Additionally, eight patients were treated for active disease that was resistant to salvage therapy post-HSCT with a median of five prior lines of therapy (range: four to 10). One of the eight patients crossed over from the adjuvant group, while two patients enrolled twice, but all three patients had active AML that failed another line of salvage therapy after their first MultiTAA-specific T cell infusion. Two of the eight patients achieved objective responses, with one complete response and one partial response, with six patients continuing with stable disease.
 
1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
We submitted an investigational new drug, or IND, application to the United States Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, to initiate a Phase 2 clinical trial of MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy, which we refer to as MT-401 (zedenoleucel), in post-allogeneic HSCT patients with AML in both the adjuvant and active disease setting. The dose administered in this multicenter trial is currently 100 million cells every two weeks for three doses. In the adjuvant setting, patients will be randomized to either MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy at approximately 90 days post-transplant versus standard of care observation, while the active disease patients will receive MT-401 following relapse post-transplant as part of a single-arm group. We have completed the safety lead-in portion of the trial in June 2021. We initiated the remainder of the Phase 2 trial in July 2021 and plan to complete enrollment of approximately 20 patients and activate additional clinical sites across the United States in the fourth quarter of 2021 in order to report results from the active disease arm of the trial in the first quarter of 2022. We expect to begin manufacturing MT-401 for the Phase 2 trial at our cGMP manufacturing facility in the third quarter of 2021.
We reported interim data for an ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trial of the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma being conducted by BCM. In this trial, we have observed a clinical benefit correlated with the post-infusion detection of tumor-reactive T cells in patient peripheral blood and within tumor biopsy samples in patients in the tumor-resection arm of the trial. These T cells exhibited activity against both targeted antigens and non-targeted TAAs, indicating induction of antigen spreading. To date, we have not observed any cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity in this trial.
We are also evaluating the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies in a Phase 2 clinical trial for the treatment of breast cancer and in Phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of ALL, lymphoma, MM and sarcoma, all of which are being conducted by BCM. As of June 2021, the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies have been generally well tolerated by all of the patients enrolled in clinical trials in hematological and solid tumor indications with no incidents of cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity, which are frequently associated with CAR-T therapies. Our ongoing clinical trials may be also affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on our observations in clinical trials in AML, pancreatic cancer, lymphoma, ALL and MM, we believe that the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies have the potential to mediate a meaningful anti-tumor effect, as well as significant in vivo expansion of T cells. We may initiate additional clinical trials investigating other indications in addition to our planned Phase 2 trial in post-transplant AML patients.
Pipeline
Our clinical-stage pipeline, including clinical trials being conducted by BCM, is set forth below.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2124472d1-tbl_bcm4clr.jpg]
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada in 1991 under the name “TapImmune, Inc.” and reincorporated in Delaware in October 2018 under the name “Marker Therapeutics, Inc.” On October 17, 2018, we completed a business combination with a Delaware corporation that was then known as “Marker Therapeutics, Inc.,” or Private Marker, in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization dated as of May 15, 2018, or the Merger Agreement, by and among us, Private Marker and Timberwolf Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of TapImmune, or Merger Sub, pursuant to which, among other matters, Merger Sub merged with and into
 
2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Private Marker, with Private Marker continuing as a wholly owned subsidiary of TapImmune and the surviving corporation of the merger. In connection with the merger, we changed our name from “TapImmune, Inc.” to “Marker Therapeutics, Inc.” and Private Marker changed its name to “Marker Cell Therapy, Inc.” and became our wholly owned subsidiary. Our principal executive offices are located at 3200 Southwest Freeway, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas 77027, and our telephone number is (713) 400-6400. Our website is located at http://www.markertherapeutics.com. We do not incorporate by reference into this prospectus the information on, or accessible through, our website, and you should not consider it as part of this prospectus. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.
Implications of Being a Smaller Reporting Company
We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. We may remain a smaller reporting company until we have a non-affiliate public float in excess of $250 million and annual revenues in excess of $100 million, or a non-affiliate public float in excess of $700 million, each as determined on an annual basis. A smaller reporting company may take advantage of relief from some of the reporting requirements and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

being permitted to provide only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting; and

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements.
The Securities We May Offer
We may offer shares of our common stock and preferred stock, various series of debt securities and/or warrants to purchase any of such securities, either individually or in combination, up to a total aggregate offering price of $300,000,000 from time to time in one or more offerings under this prospectus, together with any applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of the relevant offering. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer a type or series of securities under this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement that will describe the specific amounts, prices and other important terms of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

designation or classification;

aggregate principal amount or aggregate offering price;

maturity;

original issue discount, if any;

rates and times of payment of interest or dividends, if any;

redemption, conversion, exchange or sinking fund terms, if any;

conversion or exchange prices or rates, if any, and, if applicable, any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the conversion or exchange prices or rates and in the securities or other property receivable upon conversion or exchange;

ranking;

restrictive covenants, if any;

voting or other rights, if any; and

important U.S. federal income tax considerations.
The applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus or in documents
 
3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
we have incorporated by reference. However, no prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus will offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of the effectiveness of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
This prospectus may not be used to consummate a sale of securities unless it is accompanied by a prospectus supplement.
We may sell the securities directly to investors or through underwriters, dealers or agents. We, and our underwriters or agents, reserve the right to accept or reject all or part of any proposed purchase of securities. If we do offer securities through underwriters or agents, we will include in the applicable prospectus supplement:

the names of those underwriters or agents;

applicable fees, discounts and commissions to be paid to them;

details regarding over-allotment options, if any; and

the estimated net proceeds to us.
Common Stock.   We may issue shares of our common stock from time to time. Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. An election of directors by our stockholders shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election. Holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that we may designate and issue in the future.
Preferred Stock.   We may issue shares of our preferred stock from time to time, in one or more series. Under our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. You should refer to our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws, both of which are included as exhibits to documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part.
Our board of directors may, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, direct the issuance of shares of preferred stock in series and may, at the time of issuance, determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.
If we offer a specific series of preferred stock under this prospectus, we will describe the terms of the preferred stock in the prospectus supplement for such offering and will file a copy of the certificate of designation establishing the terms of the preferred stock with the SEC. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of preferred stock being offered, as well as the complete certificate of designation that contains the terms of the applicable series of preferred stock.
 
4

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Debt Securities.   We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The senior debt securities will rank equally with any other unsecured and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment, to the extent and in the manner described in the instrument governing the debt, to all of our senior indebtedness. Convertible debt securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or other securities. Conversion may be mandatory or at the holder’s option and would be at prescribed conversion rates.
Any debt securities issued under this prospectus will be issued under one or more documents called indentures, which are contracts between us and a national banking association or other eligible party, as trustee. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the debt securities. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the series of debt securities being offered, as well as the complete indentures that contain the terms of the debt securities. A form of indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
Warrants.   We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock, preferred stock and/or debt securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities. In this prospectus, we have summarized certain general features of the warrants. We urge you, however, to read the applicable prospectus supplement (and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) related to the particular series of warrants being offered, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants. Forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered have been filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC before the issuance of such warrants.
Any warrants issued under this prospectus will be evidenced by warrant certificates. Warrants may be issued under an applicable warrant agreement that we enter into with a warrant agent. We will indicate the name and address of the warrant agent, if applicable, in the prospectus supplement relating to the particular series of warrants being offered.
 
5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
RISK FACTORS
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020, as updated by any subsequently filed periodic reports and other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, before deciding whether to purchase any of the securities being registered pursuant to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. Each of the risk factors described in the documents referenced above could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our securities, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations.
 
6

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements. These are based on our management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions about future events, conditions and results and on information currently available to us. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein.
Any statements in this prospectus, or incorporated herein, about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. Within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, these forward-looking statements include statements regarding:

the timing, progress and results of clinical trials of MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies and our other product candidates, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of preclinical studies or clinical trials or related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available and our research and development programs;

the timing of any submission of filings for regulatory approval of product candidates and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for product candidates for any indication;

our ability to successfully commercialize product candidates;

our expectations regarding the potential benefits, activity, effectiveness and safety of our product candidates;

our expectations regarding the size of the patient populations, market acceptance and opportunity for and clinical utility of product candidates, if approved for commercial use;

our manufacturing capabilities and strategy, including the ease, scalability and commercial viability of our manufacturing methods and processes;

our expectations regarding the scope of any approved indications for product candidates;

the potential benefits of and our ability to maintain our relationships and collaborations with BCM and other potential collaboration or strategic relationships;

our ability to use the MultiTAA-specific T cell platform to develop future product candidates;

our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, future revenue, capital requirements and our needs for or ability to obtain additional funding;

our ability to identify, recruit and retain key personnel;

our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property position for our product candidates, and the scope of such protection;

our financial performance;

our competitive position and the development of and projections relating to our competitors or our industry; and

the impact of laws and regulations.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “may,” “might,” “can,” “will,” “to be,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “objective,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “likely,” “continue” and “ongoing,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.
 
7

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.
Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this prospectus, even if new information becomes available in the future.
 
8

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
USE OF PROCEEDS
We will retain broad discretion over the use of the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby. Except as described in any applicable prospectus supplement or in any free writing prospectuses that we may authorize to be provided to you in connection with a specific offering, we currently intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered hereby for working capital, capital expenditures and general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to invest in or acquire businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus. We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus our intended use for the net proceeds received from the sale of any securities sold pursuant to the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.
 
9

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock and provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws are summaries. You should also refer to the certificate of incorporation and the bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part.
General
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue up to 150,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. Our board of directors may establish the rights and preferences of the preferred stock from time to time. As of June 30, 2021, we had outstanding 83,078,675 shares of common stock and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Common Stock
Voting Rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. As a result, the holders of a plurality of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. All other matters to be voted on by our stockholders must be approved by a majority of the votes cast on the matter unless otherwise provided by law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws.
Dividends
Holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that our board of directors may designate and issue in the future.
Liquidation
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.
Rights and Preferences
Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that our board of directors may designate and issue in the future.
Preferred Stock
Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, to designate and issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series. Our board of directors may determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of
 
10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.
Our board of directors will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of each series, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of the preferred stock of each series that we offer under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of that series of preferred stock. This description will include:

the title and stated value;

the number of shares we are offering;

the liquidation preference per share;

the purchase price per share;

the dividend rate per share, dividend period and payment dates and method of calculation for dividends;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, including depositary shares and warrants, and, if applicable, the conversion period, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted;

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange period, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted;

voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

preemption rights, if any;

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or restrictions of the preferred stock.
The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or DGCL, the state of our incorporation, provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class (or, in some
 
11

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
cases, as a series) on an amendment to our certificate of incorporation if the amendment would change the par value or, unless the certificate of incorporation provided otherwise, the number of authorized shares of the class or change the powers, preferences or special rights of the class or series so as to adversely affect the class or series, as the case may be. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.
The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. The issuance could have the effect of decreasing the market price of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock also could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.
Anti-Takeover Provisions
Section 203 of the DGCL
We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, or Section 203, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a plurality of the shares of our common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our bylaws also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders upon the vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote an election of directors, and if a director was elected by a voting group of stockholders, only stockholders
 
12

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
from that voting group may vote to remove such director, and such vacancy may be filled only by the stockholders of that voting group. Furthermore, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors, and vacancies and newly created directorships on the board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law or determined by the board, only be filled by a majority vote of the directors then serving on the board, even though less than a quorum.
Our bylaws provide that only a majority of the authorized directors on our board of directors, the chairman of the board or the chief executive officer to call a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws also provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely advance notice in writing, and specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice.
The combination of these provisions may make it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.
These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Company, LLC, with offices at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.
Listing on Nasdaq
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MRKR.”
 
13

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
We may issue debt securities from time to time, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any debt securities that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. The terms of any debt securities offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. Unless the context requires otherwise, whenever we refer to the indenture, we also are referring to any supplemental indentures that specify the terms of a particular series of debt securities.
We will issue the debt securities under the indenture that we will enter into with the trustee named in the indenture. The indenture will be qualified under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or the Trust Indenture Act. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of the debt securities being offered will be filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we file with the SEC.
The following summary of material provisions of the debt securities and the indenture is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the indenture applicable to a particular series of debt securities. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements and any related free writing prospectuses related to the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as the complete indenture that contains the terms of the debt securities.
General
The indenture does not limit the amount of debt securities that we may issue. It provides that we may issue debt securities up to the principal amount that we may authorize and may be in any currency or currency unit that we may designate. Except for the limitations on consolidation, merger and sale of all or substantially all of our assets contained in the indenture, the terms of the indenture do not contain any covenants or other provisions designed to give holders of any debt securities protection against changes in our operations, financial condition or transactions involving us.
We may issue the debt securities issued under the indenture as “discount securities,” which means they may be sold at a discount below their stated principal amount. These debt securities, as well as other debt securities that are not issued at a discount, may be issued with “original issue discount,” or OID, for U.S. federal income tax purposes because of interest payment and other characteristics or terms of the debt securities. Material U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to debt securities issued with OID will be described in more detail in any applicable prospectus supplement.
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

the title of the series of debt securities;

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

the maturity date or dates;

the form of the debt securities of the series;

the applicability of any guarantees;

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;
 
14

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities;

the depositary for such global security or securities;

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

the currency of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and
 
15

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.
Conversion or Exchange Rights
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock or our other securities. We will include provisions as to settlement upon conversion or exchange and whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at our option. We may include provisions pursuant to which the number of shares of our common stock or our other securities that the holders of the series of debt securities receive would be subject to adjustment.
Consolidation, Merger or Sale
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the indenture will not contain any covenant that restricts our ability to merge or consolidate, or sell, convey, transfer or otherwise dispose of our assets as an entirety or substantially as an entirety. However, any successor to or acquirer of such assets (other than a subsidiary of ours) must assume all of our obligations under the indenture or the debt securities, as appropriate.
Events of Default under the Indenture
Unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, the following are events of default under the indenture with respect to any series of debt securities that we may issue:

if we fail to pay any installment of interest on any series of debt securities, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and such default continues for a period of 90 days; provided, however, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by us in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

if we fail to pay the principal of, or premium, if any, on any series of debt securities as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, by declaration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to such series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental thereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

if we fail to observe or perform any other covenant or agreement contained in the debt securities or the indenture, other than a covenant specifically relating to another series of debt securities, and our failure continues for 90 days after we receive written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such is a notice of default thereunder, from the trustee or holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the applicable series; and

if specified events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization occur.
If an event of default with respect to debt securities of any series occurs and is continuing, other than an event of default specified in the last bullet point above, the trustee or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series, by notice to us in writing, and to the trustee if notice is given by such holders, may declare the unpaid principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest, if any, due and payable immediately. If an event of default specified in the last bullet point above occurs with respect to us, the principal amount of and accrued interest, if any, of each issue of debt securities then outstanding shall be due and payable without any notice or other action on the part of the trustee or any holder.
The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of an affected series may waive any default or event of default with respect to the series and its consequences, except defaults or
 
16

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
events of default regarding payment of principal, premium, if any, or interest, unless we have cured the default or event of default in accordance with the indenture. Any waiver shall cure the default or event of default.
Subject to the terms of the indenture, if an event of default under an indenture shall occur and be continuing, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under such indenture at the request or direction of any of the holders of the applicable series of debt securities, unless such holders have offered the trustee reasonable indemnity. The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee, with respect to the debt securities of that series, provided that:

the direction so given by the holder is not in conflict with any law or the applicable indenture; and

subject to its duties under the Trust Indenture Act, the trustee need not take any action that might involve it in personal liability or might be unduly prejudicial to the holders not involved in the proceeding.
A holder of the debt securities of any series will have the right to institute a proceeding under the indenture or to appoint a receiver or trustee, or to seek other remedies only if:

the holder has given written notice to the trustee of a continuing event of default with respect to that series;

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request,

such holders have offered to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred by the trustee in compliance with the request; and

the trustee does not institute the proceeding, and does not receive from the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series other conflicting directions within 90 days after the notice, request and offer.
These limitations do not apply to a suit instituted by a holder of debt securities if we default in the payment of the principal, premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities.
We will periodically file statements with the trustee regarding our compliance with specified covenants in the indenture.
Modification of Indenture; Waiver
We and the trustee may change an indenture without the consent of any holders with respect to specific matters:

to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency in the indenture or in the debt securities of any series;

to comply with the provisions described above under “Description of Debt Securities — Consolidation, Merger or Sale”;

to provide for uncertificated debt securities in addition to or in place of certificated debt securities;

to add to our covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions such new covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of debt securities, to make the occurrence, or the occurrence and the continuance, of a default in any such additional covenants, restrictions, conditions or provisions an event of default or to surrender any right or power conferred upon us in the indenture;

to add to, delete from or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication and delivery of debt securities, as set forth in the indenture;

to make any change that does not adversely affect the interests of any holder of debt securities of any series in any material respect;
 
17

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the debt securities of any series as provided above under “Description of Debt Securities — General” to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of the indenture or any series of debt securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of debt securities;

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment under any indenture by a successor trustee; or

to comply with any requirements of the SEC in connection with the qualification of any indenture under the Trust Indenture Act.
In addition, under the indenture, the rights of holders of a series of debt securities may be changed by us and the trustee with the written consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series that is affected. However, unless we provide otherwise in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular series of debt securities, we and the trustee may make the following changes only with the consent of each holder of any outstanding debt securities affected:

extending the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series;

reducing the principal amount, reducing the rate of or extending the time of payment of interest, or reducing any premium payable upon the redemption of any series of any debt securities; or

reducing the percentage of debt securities, the holders of which are required to consent to any amendment, supplement, modification or waiver.
Discharge
Each indenture provides that we can elect to be discharged from our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities, except for specified obligations, including obligations to:

provide for payment;

register the transfer or exchange of debt securities of the series;

replace stolen, lost or mutilated debt securities of the series;

pay principal of and premium and interest on any debt securities of the series;

maintain paying agencies;

hold monies for payment in trust;

recover excess money held by the trustee;

compensate and indemnify the trustee; and

appoint any successor trustee.
In order to exercise our rights to be discharged, we must deposit with the trustee money or government obligations sufficient to pay all the principal of, any premium, if any, and interest on, the debt securities of the series on the dates payments are due.
Form, Exchange and Transfer
We will issue the debt securities of each series only in fully registered form without coupons and, unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, in denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof. The indenture provides that we may issue debt securities of a series in temporary or permanent global form and as book-entry securities that will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, or DTC, or another depositary named by us and identified in the applicable prospectus supplement with respect to that series. To the extent the debt securities of a series are issued in global form and as book-entry, a description of terms relating to any book-entry securities will be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
At the option of the holder, subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities described in the applicable prospectus supplement, the holder of the debt securities of any
 
18

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
series can exchange the debt securities for other debt securities of the same series, in any authorized denomination and of like tenor and aggregate principal amount.
Subject to the terms of the indenture and the limitations applicable to global securities set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the debt securities may present the debt securities for exchange or for registration of transfer, duly endorsed or with the form of transfer endorsed thereon duly executed if so required by us or the security registrar, at the office of the security registrar or at the office of any transfer agent designated by us for this purpose. Unless otherwise provided in the debt securities that the holder presents for transfer or exchange, we will impose no service charge for any registration of transfer or exchange, but we may require payment of any taxes or other governmental charges.
We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement the security registrar, and any transfer agent in addition to the security registrar, that we initially designate for any debt securities. We may at any time designate additional transfer agents or rescind the designation of any transfer agent or approve a change in the office through which any transfer agent acts, except that we will be required to maintain a transfer agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of each series.
If we elect to redeem the debt securities of any series, we will not be required to:

issue, register the transfer of, or exchange any debt securities of that series during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of mailing of a notice of redemption of any debt securities that may be selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day of the mailing; or

register the transfer of or exchange any debt securities so selected for redemption, in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of any debt securities we are redeeming in part.
Information Concerning the Trustee
The trustee, other than during the occurrence and continuance of an event of default under an indenture, undertakes to perform only those duties as are specifically set forth in the applicable indenture. Upon an event of default under an indenture, the trustee must use the same degree of care as a prudent person would exercise or use in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to this provision, the trustee is under no obligation to exercise any of the powers given it by the indenture at the request of any holder of debt securities unless it is offered reasonable security and indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities that it might incur.
Payment and Paying Agents
Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make payment of the interest on any debt securities on any interest payment date to the person in whose name the debt securities, or one or more predecessor securities, are registered at the close of business on the regular record date for the interest.
We will pay principal of and any premium and interest on the debt securities of a particular series at the office of the paying agents designated by us, except that unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will make interest payments by check that we will mail to the holder or by wire transfer to certain holders. Unless we otherwise indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will designate the corporate trust office of the trustee as our sole paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. We will name in the applicable prospectus supplement any other paying agents that we initially designate for the debt securities of a particular series. We will maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for the debt securities of a particular series.
All money we pay to a paying agent or the trustee for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any debt securities that remains unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable will be repaid to us, and the holder of the debt security thereafter may look only to us for payment thereof.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities will be governed by and construed in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, except to the extent that the Trust Indenture Act is applicable.
 
19

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplement and in any related free writing prospectuses, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, which may consist of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock or debt securities and may be issued in one or more series. Warrants may be offered independently or together with common stock, preferred stock or debt securities offered by any prospectus supplement, and may be attached to or separate from those securities. While the terms we have summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants that we may offer in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. However, no prospectus supplement will fundamentally change the terms that are set forth in this prospectus or offer a security that is not registered and described in this prospectus at the time of its effectiveness.
We have filed forms of the warrant agreements and forms of warrant certificates containing the terms of the warrants that may be offered as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. We will file as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of warrant agreement, if any, including a form of warrant certificate, that describes the terms of the particular series of warrants we are offering. The following summaries of material provisions of the warrants and the warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplements related to the particular series of warrants that we may offer under this prospectus, as well as any related free writing prospectuses, and the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.
General
We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms relating to a series of warrants being offered, including, to the extent applicable:

the title of such securities;

the offering price or prices and aggregate number of warrants offered;

the currency or currencies for which the warrants may be purchased;

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of such warrants which may be exercised at any one time;

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the principal amount of debt securities purchasable upon exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and currency in which, this principal amount of debt securities may be purchased upon such exercise;

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which, and the currency in which, these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreements and the warrants;

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

the terms of any rights to force the exercise of the warrants;
 
20

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire;

the manner in which the warrant agreements and warrants may be modified;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants; and

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.
Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including:

in the case of warrants to purchase debt securities, the right to receive payments of principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on, the debt securities purchasable upon exercise or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture; or

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.
Exercise of Warrants
Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate and in the applicable prospectus supplement the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent in connection with the exercise of the warrant.
Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.
Governing Law
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the warrants and warrant agreements, and any claim, controversy or dispute arising under or related to the warrants or warrant agreements, will be governed by and construed in accordance with the laws of the State of New York.
Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants
Each warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants.
 
21

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
LEGAL OWNERSHIP OF SECURITIES
We can issue securities in registered form or in the form of one or more global securities. We describe global securities in greater detail below. We refer to those persons who have securities registered in their own names on the books that we or any applicable trustee, depositary or warrant agent maintain for this purpose as the “holders” of those securities. These persons are the legal holders of the securities. We refer to those persons who, indirectly through others, own beneficial interests in securities that are not registered in their own names, as “indirect holders” of those securities. As we discuss below, indirect holders are not legal holders, and investors in securities issued in book-entry form or in street name will be indirect holders.
Book-Entry Holders
We may issue securities in book-entry form only, as we will specify in the applicable prospectus supplement. This means securities may be represented by one or more global securities registered in the name of a financial institution that holds them as depositary on behalf of other financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system. These participating institutions, which are referred to as participants, in turn, hold beneficial interests in the securities on behalf of themselves or their customers.
Only the person in whose name a security is registered is recognized as the holder of that security. Global securities will be registered in the name of the depositary or its participants. Consequently, for global securities, we will recognize only the depositary as the holder of the securities, and we will make all payments on the securities to the depositary. The depositary passes along the payments it receives to its participants, which in turn pass the payments along to their customers who are the beneficial owners. The depositary and its participants do so under agreements they have made with one another or with their customers; they are not obligated to do so under the terms of the securities.
As a result, investors in a global security will not own securities directly. Instead, they will own beneficial interests in a global security, through a bank, broker or other financial institution that participates in the depositary’s book-entry system or holds an interest through a participant. As long as the securities are issued in global form, investors will be indirect holders, and not legal holders, of the securities.
Street Name Holders
We may terminate a global security or issue securities that are not issued in global form. In these cases, investors may choose to hold their securities in their own names or in “street name.” Securities held by an investor in street name would be registered in the name of a bank, broker or other financial institution that the investor chooses, and the investor would hold only a beneficial interest in those securities through an account he or she maintains at that institution.
For securities held in street name, we or any applicable trustee or depositary will recognize only the intermediary banks, brokers and other financial institutions in whose names the securities are registered as the holders of those securities, and we or any such trustee or depositary will make all payments on those securities to them. These institutions pass along the payments they receive to their customers who are the beneficial owners, but only because they agree to do so in their customer agreements or because they are legally required to do so. Investors who hold securities in street name will be indirect holders, not legal holders, of those securities.
Legal Holders
Our obligations, as well as the obligations of any applicable trustee or third party employed by us or a trustee, run only to the legal holders of the securities. We do not have obligations to investors who hold beneficial interests in global securities, in street name or by any other indirect means. This will be the case whether an investor chooses to be an indirect holder of a security or has no choice because we are issuing the securities only in global form.
For example, once we make a payment or give a notice to the holder, we have no further responsibility for the payment or notice even if that holder is required, under agreements with its participants or customers or by law, to pass it along to the indirect holders but does not do so. Similarly, we may want to obtain the approval of the holders to amend an indenture, to relieve us of the consequences of a default or of our
 
22

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
obligation to comply with a particular provision of an indenture, or for other purposes. In such an event, we would seek approval only from the holders, and not the indirect holders, of the securities. Whether and how the legal holders contact the indirect holders is up to the legal holders.
Special Considerations for Indirect Holders
If you hold securities through a bank, broker or other financial institution, either in book-entry form because the securities are represented by one or more global securities or in street name, you should check with your own institution to find out:

how it handles securities payments and notices;

whether it imposes fees or charges;

how it would handle a request for the holders’ consent, if ever required;

whether and how you can instruct it to send you securities registered in your own name so you can be a holder, if that is permitted in the future;

how it would exercise rights under the securities if there were a default or other event triggering the need for holders to act to protect their interests; and

if the securities are in book-entry form, how the depositary’s rules and procedures will affect these matters.
Global Securities
A global security is a security that represents one or any other number of individual securities held by a depositary. Generally, all securities represented by the same global securities will have the same terms.
Each security issued in book-entry form will be represented by a global security that we issue to, deposit with and register in the name of a financial institution or its nominee that we select. The financial institution that we select for this purpose is called the depositary. Unless we specify otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, DTC will be the depositary for all securities issued in book-entry form.
A global security may not be transferred to or registered in the name of anyone other than the depositary, its nominee or a successor depositary, unless special termination situations arise. We describe those situations below under “— Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated.” As a result of these arrangements, the depositary, or its nominee, will be the sole registered owner and legal holder of all securities represented by a global security, and investors will be permitted to own only beneficial interests in a global security. Beneficial interests must be held by means of an account with a broker, bank or other financial institution that in turn has an account with the depositary or with another institution that does. Thus, an investor whose security is represented by a global security will not be a legal holder of the security, but only an indirect holder of a beneficial interest in the global security.
If the prospectus supplement for a particular security indicates that the security will be issued as a global security, then the security will be represented by a global security at all times unless and until the global security is terminated. If termination occurs, we may issue the securities through another book-entry clearing system or decide that the securities may no longer be held through any book-entry clearing system.
Special Considerations for Global Securities
As an indirect holder, an investor’s rights relating to a global security will be governed by the account rules of the investor’s financial institution and of the depositary, as well as general laws relating to securities transfers. We do not recognize an indirect holder as a holder of securities and instead deal only with the depositary that holds the global security.
If securities are issued only as global securities, an investor should be aware of the following:

an investor cannot cause the securities to be registered in his or her name, and cannot obtain non-global certificates for his or her interest in the securities, except in the special situations we describe below;
 
23

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 

an investor will be an indirect holder and must look to his or her own bank or broker for payments on the securities and protection of his or her legal rights relating to the securities, as we describe above;

an investor may not be able to sell interests in the securities to some insurance companies and to other institutions that are required by law to own their securities in non-book-entry form;

an investor may not be able to pledge his or her interest in the global security in circumstances where certificates representing the securities must be delivered to the lender or other beneficiary of the pledge in order for the pledge to be effective;

the depositary’s policies, which may change from time to time, will govern payments, transfers, exchanges and other matters relating to an investor’s interest in the global security;

we and any applicable trustee have no responsibility for any aspect of the depositary’s actions or for its records of ownership interests in the global security, nor will we or any applicable trustee supervise the depositary in any way;

the depositary may, and we understand that DTC will, require that those who purchase and sell interests in the global security within its book-entry system use immediately available funds, and your broker or bank may require you to do so as well; and

financial institutions that participate in the depositary’s book-entry system, and through which an investor holds its interest in the global security, may also have their own policies affecting payments, notices and other matters relating to the securities.
There may be more than one financial intermediary in the chain of ownership for an investor. We do not monitor and are not responsible for the actions of any of those intermediaries.
Special Situations When a Global Security Will Be Terminated
In a few special situations described below, a global security will terminate and interests in it will be exchanged for physical certificates representing those interests. After that exchange, the choice of whether to hold securities directly or in street name will be up to the investor. Investors must consult their own banks or brokers to find out how to have their interests in securities transferred to their own names, so that they will be direct holders. We have described the rights of holders and street name investors above.
Unless we provide otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, a global security will terminate when the following special situations occur:

if the depositary notifies us that it is unwilling, unable or no longer qualified to continue as depositary for that global security and we do not appoint another institution to act as depositary within 90 days;

if we notify any applicable trustee that we wish to terminate that global security; or

if an event of default has occurred with regard to securities represented by that global security and has not been cured or waived.
The applicable prospectus supplement may also list additional situations for terminating a global security that would apply only to the particular series of securities covered by the prospectus supplement. When a global security terminates, the depositary, and neither we nor any applicable trustee, is responsible for deciding the names of the institutions that will be the initial direct holders.
 
24

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods. We may sell the securities to or through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers. We may distribute securities from time to time in one or more transactions:

at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

at negotiated prices.
We may also sell equity securities covered by this registration statement in an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. Such offering may be made into an existing trading market for such securities in transactions at other than a fixed price on or through the facilities of The Nasdaq Global Market or any other securities exchange or quotation or trading service on which such securities may be listed, quoted or traded at the time of sale. Such at the market offerings, if any, may be conducted by underwriters acting as principal or agent.
A prospectus supplement or supplements (and any related free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you) will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including, to the extent applicable:

the name or names of any underwriters, dealers or agents, if any;

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

any agency fees or underwriting discounts and other items constituting agents’ or underwriters’ compensation;

any public offering price;

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.
Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.
If underwriters are used in the sale, they will acquire the securities for their own account and may resell the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. The obligations of the underwriters to purchase the securities will be subject to the conditions set forth in the applicable underwriting agreement. We may offer the securities to the public through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or by underwriters without a syndicate. Subject to certain conditions, the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement, other than securities covered by any overallotment or other option. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may change from time to time. We may use underwriters with whom we have a material relationship. We will describe in the prospectus supplement, naming the underwriter, the nature of any such relationship.
We may sell securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time. We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities, and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, our agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.
We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by certain types of institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will
 
25

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.
We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against civil liabilities related to this offering, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to these liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.
All securities we may offer, other than common stock, will be new issues of securities with no established trading market. Any underwriters may make a market in these securities, but will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice. We cannot guarantee the liquidity of the trading markets for any securities.
Any underwriter may engage in overallotment, stabilizing transactions, short covering transactions and penalty bids. Overallotment involves sales in excess of the offering size, which create a short position. Stabilizing transactions permit bids to purchase the underlying security so long as the stabilizing bids do not exceed a specified maximum. Short covering transactions involve purchases of the securities in the open market after the distribution is completed to cover short positions. Penalty bids permit the underwriters to reclaim a selling concession from a dealer when the securities originally sold by the dealer are purchased in a stabilizing or covering transaction to cover short positions. Those activities may cause the price of the securities to be higher than it would otherwise be. If commenced, the underwriters may discontinue any of the activities at any time. These transactions may be effected on any exchange or over-the-counter market or otherwise.
Any underwriters or agents who are qualified market makers on The Nasdaq Global Market may engage in passive market making transactions in the securities on The Nasdaq Global Market in accordance with Rule 103 of Regulation M under the Exchange Act, during the business day prior to the pricing of the offering, before the commencement of offers or sales of the securities. Passive market makers must comply with applicable volume and price limitations and must be identified as passive market makers. In general, a passive market maker must display its bid at a price not in excess of the highest independent bid for such security; if all independent bids are lowered below the passive market maker’s bid, however, the passive market maker’s bid must then be lowered when certain purchase limits are exceeded. Passive market making may stabilize the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market and, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time.
 
26

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
LEGAL MATTERS
Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, certain legal matters in connection with the offering and the validity of the securities offered by this prospectus, and any supplement thereto, will be passed upon by Cooley LLP, New York, New York. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
Marcum LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, as set forth in its report included in our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our 2020 and 2019 financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Marcum LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as us, that file electronically with the SEC.
Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.markertherapeutics.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.
 
27

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-37939. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.
The following documents are incorporated by reference into this document:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 9, 2021;

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 23, 2021, as supplemented on May 5, 2021;

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on May 12, 2021 and August 10, 2021, respectively;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2021 and June 11, 2021; and

the description of our common stock set forth in the amendment to the registration statement on Form 8-A registering our common stock under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, which was filed with the SEC on October 17, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for purposes of updating such description.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Marker Therapeutics, Inc., Attn: Corporate Secretary, 3200 Southwest Freeway, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas 77027, and our telephone number is (713) 400-6400.
Any statement contained in this prospectus or contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any subsequently filed supplement to this prospectus, or document deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or supersedes such statement.
 
28

TABLE OF CONTENTS
The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities or accept an offer to buy these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities, and it is not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any state where such offer or sale is not permitted.
SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED AUGUST 10, 2021
PROSPECTUS
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_markertherapeutics-4clr.jpg]
$75,000,000
Common Stock
This sales agreement prospectus relates to the issuance and sale of shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75.0 million from time to time through our sales agents, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC, or the Sales Agents. These sales, if any, will be made pursuant to the terms of the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, or the Sales Agreement, among us and the Sales Agents, dated August 10, 2021, which is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission as an exhibit to the Registration Statement of which this prospectus is part.
Our common stock is traded on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MRKR.” On August 6, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $2.07 per share.
Sales of shares of our common stock under this prospectus, if any, may be made by any method deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. The Sales Agents are not required to sell any specific number or dollar amount of shares of our common stock. Each of the Sales Agents has agreed to use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms among the Sales Agents and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
The Sales Agents will be entitled to compensation under the terms of the Sales Agreement at a commission rate equal to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share sold. The net proceeds from any sales under this prospectus will be used as described under the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.” See “Plan of Distribution” for additional information regarding compensation to be paid to the Sales Agents. The proceeds we receive from sales of our common stock, if any, will depend on the number of shares actually sold and the offering price of such shares.
In connection with the sale of common stock on our behalf, each of the Sales Agents will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation of the Sales Agents will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Sales Agents with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
Investing in our securities involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-5 of this prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
NEITHER THE SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION NOR ANY STATE SECURITIES COMMISSION HAS APPROVED OR DISAPPROVED OF THESE SECURITIES OR DETERMINED IF THIS PROSPECTUS IS TRUTHFUL OR COMPLETE. ANY REPRESENTATION TO THE CONTRARY IS A CRIMINAL OFFENSE.
Cantor
RBC Capital Markets
The date of this prospectus is           , 2021.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S-i
S-1
S-4
S-5
S-7
S-9
S-10
S-12
S-16
S-17
S-17
S-17
S-18
 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus relates to part of a registration statement on Form S-3 that we have filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, or SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in our base prospectus included in the shelf registration statement in one or more offerings up to a total aggregate offering price of $300,000,000. The $75,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under this prospectus is included in the $300,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us pursuant to our shelf registration statement. In connection with such offers and when accompanied by the base prospectus included in the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part, this prospectus will be deemed a prospectus supplement to such base prospectus.
This prospectus relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus, together with the information incorporated by reference as described under the headings “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference” in this prospectus. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.
This prospectus describes the terms of this offering of common stock and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus that was filed with the SEC before the date of this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. If any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date (for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus) the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.
You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering. We have not, and the Sales Agents have not, authorized anyone to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. We are not, and the Sales Agents are not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision.
This prospectus and the information incorporated herein by reference contain summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”
 
S-i

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SUMMARY
This following summary highlights information about us, this offering and selected information contained elsewhere in or incorporated by reference into this prospectus. This summary is not complete and does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding whether to invest in our common stock. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, we encourage you to read and consider carefully the more detailed information in this prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and the information included in any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the information under the heading “Risk Factors” in this prospectus on page S-5 and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Unless the context indicates otherwise, as used in this prospectus, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” “the company” and “Marker Therapeutics” refer to Marker Therapeutics, Inc., formerly known as TapImmune, Inc., and its subsidiaries. We own various U.S. federal trademark applications and unregistered trademarks, including our company name. All other trademarks or trade names referred to in this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, the trademarks and trade names in this prospectus are referred to without the symbols ® and ™, but such references should not be construed as any indication that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto.
Overview
We are a clinical-stage immuno-oncology company specializing in the development and commercialization of novel T cell-based immunotherapies and innovative peptide-based vaccines for the treatment of hematological malignancies and solid tumor indications. We developed our lead product candidates from our MultiTAA-specific T cell technology, which is based on the selective expansion of non-engineered, tumor-specific T cells that recognize tumor associated antigens, or TAAs, which are tumor targets, and then kill tumor cells expressing those targets. These T cells are designed to recognize multiple tumor targets to produce broad spectrum anti-tumor activity. We are advancing two pipelines of product candidates as part of our MultiTAA-specific T cell program: the autologous T cells for the treatment of lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or MM, and selected solid tumors and the allogeneic T cells for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia, or AML, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia, or ALL. Because we do not genetically engineer the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies, we believe that our product candidates are easier and less expensive to manufacture, have lower toxicities than current engineered chimeric antigen receptor, or CAR-T, and T cell receptor-based therapies and may provide patients with meaningful clinical benefit. We are also developing innovative peptide-based immunotherapeutic vaccines for the treatment of metastatic solid tumors.
We are pursuing post-transplant AML as the lead indication for our first company-sponsored MultiTAA-specific T cell program. In April 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration granted orphan drug designation to MT-401 for the treatment of AML after receiving an allogeneic stem cell transplant. The MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy has been well tolerated in an ongoing Phase 1 clinical trial in AML and myelodysplastic syndrome, or MDS, conducted by our strategic partner Baylor College of Medicine, or BCM. As reported in a recent publication by Lulla et al., 11 of the 17 patients in the adjuvant disease setting dosed with the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy after receiving an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant, or HSCT, never relapsed [median leukemia-free survival, or LFS, not reached at a median follow-up of 1.9 years], with 11 of 15 patients remaining alive (estimated two-year overall survival of 77%) at a median follow-up of 1.9 years post-infusion, which compares favorably with HSCT outcomes for risk-matched AML/MDS patients post-HSCT [median LFS of nine to 15 months and two-year survival probability of 42%]. Additionally, eight patients were treated for active disease that was resistant to salvage therapy post-HSCT with a median of five prior lines of therapy (range: four to 10). One of the eight patients crossed over from the adjuvant group, while two patients enrolled twice, but all three patients had active AML that failed another line of salvage therapy after their first MultiTAA-specific T cell infusion. Two of the eight patients achieved objective responses, with one complete response and one partial response, with six patients continuing with stable disease.
We submitted an investigational new drug, or IND, application to the United States Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, to initiate a Phase 2 clinical trial of MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy, which
 
S-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
we refer to as MT-401 (zedenoleucel), in post-allogeneic HSCT patients with AML in both the adjuvant and active disease setting. The dose administered in this multicenter trial is currently 100 million cells every two weeks for three doses. In the adjuvant setting, patients will be randomized to either MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy at approximately 90 days post-transplant versus standard of care observation, while the active disease patients will receive MT-401 following relapse post-transplant as part of a single-arm group. We have completed the safety lead-in portion of the trial in June 2021. We initiated the remainder of the Phase 2 trial in July 2021 and plan to complete enrollment of approximately 20 patients and activate additional clinical sites across the United States in the fourth quarter of 2021 in order to report results from the active disease arm of the trial in the first quarter of 2022. We expect to begin manufacturing MT-401 for the Phase 2 trial at our cGMP manufacturing facility in the third quarter of 2021.
We reported interim data for an ongoing Phase 1/2 clinical trial of the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapy for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma being conducted by BCM. In this trial, we have observed a clinical benefit correlated with the post-infusion detection of tumor-reactive T cells in patient peripheral blood and within tumor biopsy samples in patients in the tumor-resection arm of the trial. These T cells exhibited activity against both targeted antigens and non-targeted TAAs, indicating induction of antigen spreading. To date, we have not observed any cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity in this trial.
We are also evaluating the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies in a Phase 2 clinical trial for the treatment of breast cancer and in Phase 1 clinical trials for the treatment of ALL, lymphoma, MM and sarcoma, all of which are being conducted by BCM. As of June 2021, the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies have been generally well tolerated by all of the patients enrolled in clinical trials in hematological and solid tumor indications with no incidents of cytokine release syndrome or neurotoxicity, which are frequently associated with CAR-T therapies. Our ongoing clinical trials may be also affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on our observations in clinical trials in AML, pancreatic cancer, lymphoma, ALL and MM, we believe that the MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies have the potential to mediate a meaningful anti-tumor effect, as well as significant in vivo expansion of T cells. We may initiate additional clinical trials investigating other indications in addition to our planned Phase 2 trial in post-transplant AML patients.
Pipeline
Our clinical-stage pipeline, including clinical trials being conducted by BCM, is set forth below.
[MISSING IMAGE: tm2124472d1-tbl_bcm4clr.jpg]
Corporate Information
We were incorporated under the laws of the State of Nevada in 1991 under the name “TapImmune, Inc.” and reincorporated in Delaware in October 2018 under the name “Marker Therapeutics, Inc.” On October 17, 2018, we completed a business combination with a Delaware corporation that was then known as “Marker Therapeutics, Inc.,” or Private Marker, in accordance with the terms of the Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization dated as of May 15, 2018, or the Merger Agreement, by and among us, Private Marker and Timberwolf Merger Sub, Inc., a Delaware corporation and a wholly owned subsidiary of TapImmune, or Merger Sub, pursuant to which, among other matters, Merger Sub merged with and into Private Marker, with Private Marker continuing as a wholly owned subsidiary of TapImmune and the surviving corporation of the merger. In connection with the merger, we changed our name from “TapImmune,
 
S-2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
Inc.” to “Marker Therapeutics, Inc.” and Private Marker changed its name to “Marker Cell Therapy, Inc.” and became our wholly owned subsidiary. Our principal executive offices are located at 3200 Southwest Freeway, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas 77027, and our telephone number is (713) 400-6400. Our website is located at http://www.markertherapeutics.com. We do not incorporate by reference into this prospectus the information on, or accessible through, our website, and you should not consider it as part of this prospectus. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.
Implications of Being a Smaller Reporting Company
We are a “smaller reporting company” as defined in Rule 12b-2 promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act. We may remain a smaller reporting company until we have a non-affiliate public float in excess of $250 million and annual revenues in excess of $100 million, or a non-affiliate public float in excess of $700 million, each as determined on an annual basis. A smaller reporting company may take advantage of relief from some of the reporting requirements and other burdens that are otherwise applicable generally to public companies. These provisions include:

being permitted to provide only two years of audited financial statements, in addition to any required unaudited interim financial statements, with correspondingly reduced “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” disclosure;

not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting; and

reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports, proxy statements and registration statements.
 
S-3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by us
Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $75,000,000.
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering
Up to 119,310,559 shares, assuming sales of 36,231,884 shares of our common stock in this offering at an offering price of $2.07 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on August 6, 2021. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Manner of offering
“At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through our Sales Agents. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-16.
Use of proceeds
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily to fund the research and development of our product candidates, to fund our manufacturing activities and for working capital and general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to invest in or acquire businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus. See “Use of Proceeds.”
Risk factors
You should read the “Risk Factors” section of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference herein for a discussion of factors to consider carefully before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
Nasdaq Global Market symbol
“MRKR”
The number of shares of our common stock that will be outstanding after this offering is based on 83,078,675 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021, and excludes:

7,460,777 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $5.59 per share;

20,830,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $4.47 per share; and

3,162,164 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan.
Unless otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes no exercise of the outstanding options and warrants described above, and reflects an assumed public offering price of $2.07 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on August 6, 2021.
 
S-4

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before you decide to invest in our common stock, you should carefully consider the risks and uncertainties described below together with all other information contained in this prospectus and in our filings with the SEC that we have incorporated by reference into this prospectus. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation of Certain Information by Reference.” If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, prospects, operating results and financial condition could suffer materially. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.
Additional Risks Related to This Offering
We have broad discretion over the use of our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, and may not use them effectively.
Our management has broad discretion to use our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, to fund our operations and could spend these funds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have an adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use to fund operations, we may invest our cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value. See “Use of Proceeds.”
If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may suffer immediate dilution of your investment.
The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. Assuming that an aggregate of 36,231,884 shares of our common stock are sold at a price of $2.07 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on August 6, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $75.0 million, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, you would experience immediate dilution of $0.93 per share, representing the difference between our as adjusted net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2021 after giving effect to this offering and the assumed offering price. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing stockholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested.
Investors in this offering may experience future dilution.
In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into, or exchangeable for, our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We cannot assure you that we will be able to sell shares of our common stock or other related securities in any other offering at a price per share that is equal to or greater than the price per share paid by investors in this offering. If the price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock or related securities in future transactions is less than the price per share in this offering, investors who purchase our common stock in this offering will suffer dilution in their investment.
In addition, we have a significant number of stock options and warrants exercisable for shares of our common stock outstanding. To the extent that outstanding stock options or warrants have been or may be exercised, investors purchasing our common stock in this offering may experience further dilution in the future. Furthermore, a significant portion of our total outstanding shares are eligible to be sold into the market, which could cause the market price of our common stock to drop significantly, even if our business is doing well.
 
S-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
After this offering, our executive officers and directors and their affiliates, if they choose to act together, will continue to have the ability to significantly influence all matters submitted to stockholders for approval.
Upon the completion of this offering, our executive officers, directors and stockholders who owned more than 5% of our outstanding common stock before this offering will beneficially own a significant percentage of our outstanding common stock. As a result, following this offering, if these stockholders were to choose to act together, they would be able to significantly influence all matters submitted to our stockholders for approval, as well as our management and affairs. For example, these persons, if they choose to act together, would significantly influence the election of directors and approval of any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets. This concentration of ownership control may delay, defer or prevent a change in control of our company, entrench our management and board of directors, or impede a merger, consolidation, takeover or other business combination involving us that other stockholders may desire.
An active trading market for our common stock may not be sustained following this offering.
Although our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market, an active trading market for our shares may not be sustained. If an active market for our common stock does not continue, it may be difficult for you to sell your shares, including shares you may purchase in this offering, without depressing the market price for the shares or sell your shares at all. Any inactive trading market for our common stock may also impair our ability to raise capital to continue to fund our operations by selling shares and may impair our ability to acquire other companies or technologies by using our shares as consideration.
The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
 
S-6

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein contain forward-looking statements. These are based on our management’s current beliefs, expectations and assumptions about future events, conditions and results and on information currently available to us. Discussions containing these forward-looking statements may be found, among other places, in the sections entitled “Business,” “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” contained in the documents incorporated by reference herein.
Any statements in this prospectus, or incorporated herein, about our expectations, beliefs, plans, objectives, assumptions or future events or performance are not historical facts and are forward-looking statements. Within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act, these forward-looking statements include statements regarding:

the timing, progress and results of clinical trials of MultiTAA-specific T cell therapies and our other product candidates, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of preclinical studies or clinical trials or related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available and our research and development programs;

the timing of any submission of filings for regulatory approval of product candidates and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for product candidates for any indication;

our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates;

our expectations regarding the potential benefits, activity, effectiveness and safety of our product candidates;

our expectations regarding the size of the patient populations, market acceptance and opportunity for and clinical utility of product candidates, if approved for commercial use;

our manufacturing capabilities and strategy, including the, ease, scalability and commercial viability of our manufacturing methods and processes;

our expectations regarding the scope of any approved indications for product candidates;

the potential benefits of and our ability to maintain our relationships and collaborations with BCM and other potential collaboration or strategic relationships;

our ability to use the MultiTAA-specific T cell platform to develop future product candidates;

our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, future revenue, capital requirements and our needs for or ability to obtain additional funding;

our ability to identify, recruit and retain key personnel;

our ability to protect and enforce our intellectual property position for our product candidates, and the scope of such protection;

our financial performance;

our expected use of proceeds from this offering;

our competitive position and the development of and projections relating to our competitors or our industry; and

the impact of laws and regulations.
In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by the words “may,” “might,” “can,” “will,” “to be,” “could,” “would,” “should,” “expect,” “intend,” “plan,” “objective,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “project,” “potential,” “likely,” “continue” and “ongoing,” or the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology intended to identify statements about the future, although not all forward-looking statements contain these words. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.
 
S-7

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
You should refer to the “Risk Factors” section contained in this prospectus and any related free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in the other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, for a discussion of important factors that may cause our actual results to differ materially from those expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. Given these risks, uncertainties and other factors, many of which are beyond our control, we cannot assure you that the forward-looking statements in this prospectus will prove to be accurate, and you should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements. Furthermore, if our forward-looking statements prove to be inaccurate, the inaccuracy may be material. In light of the significant uncertainties in these forward-looking statements, you should not regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified time frame, or at all.
Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements publicly, or to revise any forward-looking statements to reflect events or developments occurring after the date of this prospectus, even if new information becomes available in the future.
 
S-8

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate sales proceeds of up to $75.0 million from time to time. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to close this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time. There can be no assurance that we will sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement as a source of financing.
We currently intend to use the net proceeds from this offering primarily to fund the research and development of our product candidates, to fund our manufacturing activities and for working capital and general corporate purposes. We may also use a portion of the net proceeds to invest in or acquire businesses or technologies that we believe are complementary to our own, although we have no current plans, commitments or agreements with respect to any acquisitions as of the date of this prospectus. Pending these uses, we intend to invest the net proceeds in investment-grade, interest-bearing securities.
 
S-9

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
DILUTION
If you invest in our common stock in this offering, your ownership interest will be diluted immediately to the extent of the difference between the public offering price per share you will pay in this offering and the as adjusted net tangible book value per share of our common stock after this offering.
Our historical net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 was $63.2 million, or $0.76 per share of common stock. Historical net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our total tangible assets less total liabilities, divided by the 83,078,675 shares of our common stock outstanding on June 30, 2021.
After giving effect to the issuance and sale of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75.0 million in this offering at an assumed offering price of $2.07 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on August 6, 2021, and after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us, our as adjusted net tangible book value as of June 30, 2021 would have been $135.7 million, or $1.14 per share. This represents an immediate increase of $0.38 in the as adjusted net tangible book value per share to existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $0.93 in the as adjusted net tangible book value per share to new investors purchasing common stock in this offering. Dilution per share to new investors is determined by subtracting as adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering from the assumed public offering price of $2.07 per share. The following table illustrates this per share dilution to the new investors purchasing shares of our common stock in this offering:
Assumed public offering price per share
$ 2.07
Historical net tangible book value per share as of June 30, 2021
$ 0.76
Increase in as adjusted net tangible book value per share attributable to this offering
0.38
As adjusted net tangible book value per share after this offering
1.14
Dilution per share to new investors in this offering
$ 0.93
The information discussed above is based on 83,078,675 shares of our common stock outstanding as of June 30, 2021 and excludes:

7,460,777 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of stock options outstanding as of June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $5.59 per share;

20,830,000 shares of our common stock issuable upon the exercise of warrants outstanding as of June 30, 2021, at a weighted-average exercise price of $4.47 per share; and

3,162,164 shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan.
The table above assumes for illustrative purposes that an aggregate of 36,231,884 shares of our common stock are sold during the term of the Sales Agreement at a price of $2.07 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on The Nasdaq Global Market on August 6, 2021, for aggregate gross proceeds of $75.0 million. The shares subject to the Sales Agreement are being sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $2.07 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75.0 million during the term of the Sales Agreement is sold at that price, would increase our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $1.26 per share and would increase the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $1.81 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $2.07 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $75.0 million during the term of the Sales Agreement is sold at that price, would decrease our adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to $0.89 per share and would decrease the dilution in net tangible book value per share to new investors in this offering to $0.18 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us. This information is supplied for illustrative purposes only.
To the extent that outstanding options or warrants are exercised or we issue additional options, warrants or shares of our common stock in the future, there will be further dilution to investors purchasing
 
S-10

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
common stock in this offering. In addition, we may choose to raise additional capital due to market conditions or strategic considerations even if we believe we have sufficient funds for our current or future operating plans. To the extent that additional capital is raised through the sale of equity or convertible debt securities, the issuance of these securities could result in further dilution to our stockholders.
 
S-11

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock and provisions of our certificate of incorporation and bylaws are summaries. You should also refer to the certificate of incorporation and the bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is part.
General
Our certificate of incorporation authorizes us to issue up to 150,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.001 par value per share, and 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock, $0.001 par value per share. Our board of directors may establish the rights and preferences of the preferred stock from time to time. As of June 30, 2021, we had outstanding 83,078,675 shares of common stock and no shares of preferred stock outstanding.
Common Stock
Voting Rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders and do not have cumulative voting rights. As a result, the holders of a plurality of the shares of common stock entitled to vote in any election of directors can elect all of the directors standing for election, if they should so choose. All other matters to be voted on by our stockholders must be approved by a majority of the votes cast on the matter unless otherwise provided by law, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws.
Dividends
Holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends as may be declared by our board of directors, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any series of preferred stock that our board of directors may designate and issue in the future.
Liquidation
In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, the holders of common stock are entitled to receive ratably our net assets available for distribution to stockholders after the payment of all debts and other liabilities and subject to the prior rights of any outstanding preferred stock.
Rights and Preferences
Holders of common stock have no preemptive, subscription, redemption or conversion rights. There are no redemption or sinking fund provisions applicable to the common stock. The rights, preferences and privileges of holders of common stock are subject to and may be adversely affected by the rights of the holders of shares of any series of preferred stock that our board of directors may designate and issue in the future.
Preferred Stock
Pursuant to our certificate of incorporation, our board of directors has the authority, without further action by our stockholders, from time to time, to designate and issue up to 5,000,000 shares of preferred stock in one or more series. Our board of directors may determine the rights, preferences and limitations of each series, including voting rights, dividend rights and redemption and liquidation preferences. Satisfaction of any dividend preferences of outstanding shares of preferred stock would reduce the amount of funds available for the payment of dividends on shares of our common stock. Holders of shares of preferred stock may be entitled to receive a preference payment in the event of any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of our company before any payment is made to the holders of shares of our common stock. In some circumstances, the issuance of shares of preferred stock may render more difficult or tend to discourage a merger, tender offer or proxy contest, the assumption of control by a holder of a large block of our securities or the removal of incumbent management. Upon the affirmative vote of our board of
 
S-12

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
directors, without stockholder approval, we may issue shares of preferred stock with voting and conversion rights which could adversely affect the holders of shares of our common stock.
Our board of directors will fix the designations, voting powers, preferences and rights of each series, as well as the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of the preferred stock of each series that we offer under this prospectus and applicable prospectus supplements in the certificate of designation relating to that series. We will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from reports that we file with the SEC, the form of any certificate of designation that describes the terms of the series of preferred stock we are offering before the issuance of that series of preferred stock. This description will include:

the title and stated value;

the number of shares we are offering;

the liquidation preference per share;

the purchase price per share;

the dividend rate per share, dividend period and payment dates and method of calculation for dividends;

whether dividends will be cumulative or non-cumulative and, if cumulative, the date from which dividends will accumulate;

our right, if any, to defer payment of dividends and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

the procedures for any auction and remarketing, if any;

the provisions for a sinking fund, if any;

the provisions for redemption or repurchase, if applicable, and any restrictions on our ability to exercise those redemption and repurchase rights;

any listing of the preferred stock on any securities exchange or market;

whether the preferred stock will be convertible into our common stock or other securities of ours, including depositary shares and warrants, and, if applicable, the conversion period, the conversion price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted;

whether the preferred stock will be exchangeable into debt securities, and, if applicable, the exchange period, the exchange price, or how it will be calculated, and under what circumstances it may be adjusted;

voting rights, if any, of the preferred stock;

preemption rights, if any;

restrictions on transfer, sale or other assignment, if any;

whether interests in the preferred stock will be represented by depositary shares;

a discussion of any material or special U.S. federal income tax considerations applicable to the preferred stock;

the relative ranking and preferences of the preferred stock as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs;

any limitations on issuances of any class or series of preferred stock ranking senior to or on a parity with the series of preferred stock being issued as to dividend rights and rights if we liquidate, dissolve or wind up our affairs; and

any other specific terms, rights, preferences, privileges, qualifications or restrictions of the preferred stock.
The General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or DGCL, the state of our incorporation, provides that the holders of preferred stock will have the right to vote separately as a class (or, in some
 
S-13

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
cases, as a series) on an amendment to our certificate of incorporation if the amendment would change the par value or, unless the certificate of incorporation provided otherwise, the number of authorized shares of the class or change the powers, preferences or special rights of the class or series so as to adversely affect the class or series, as the case may be. This right is in addition to any voting rights that may be provided for in the applicable certificate of designation.
The issuance of preferred stock could adversely affect the voting power of holders of common stock and reduce the likelihood that common stockholders will receive dividend payments and payments upon liquidation. The issuance could have the effect of decreasing the market price of the common stock. The issuance of preferred stock also could have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.
Anti-Takeover Provisions
Section 203 of the DGCL
We are subject to Section 203 of the DGCL, or Section 203, which prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years after the date that such stockholder became an interested stockholder, with the following exceptions:

before such date, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

upon completion of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction began, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder, those shares owned (i) by persons who are directors and also officers and (ii) employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or

on or after such date, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
In general, Section 203 defines a “business combination” to include the following:

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;

subject to certain exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock or any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an “interested stockholder” as an entity or person who, together with the person’s affiliates and associates, beneficially owns, or within three years prior to the time of determination of interested stockholder status did own, 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation.
Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws
Because our stockholders do not have cumulative voting rights, stockholders holding a plurality of the shares of our common stock outstanding will be able to elect all of our directors. Our bylaws also provide that directors may be removed by the stockholders upon the vote of a majority of the shares entitled to vote an election of directors, and if a director was elected by a voting group of stockholders, only stockholders
 
S-14

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
from that voting group may vote to remove such director, and such vacancy may be filled only by the stockholders of that voting group. Furthermore, the authorized number of directors may be changed only by resolution of the board of directors, and vacancies and newly created directorships on the board of directors may, except as otherwise required by law or determined by the board, only be filled by a majority vote of the directors then serving on the board, even though less than a quorum.
Our bylaws provide that only a majority of the authorized directors on our board of directors, the chairman of the board or the chief executive officer to call a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws also provide that stockholders seeking to present proposals before a meeting of stockholders to nominate candidates for election as directors at a meeting of stockholders must provide timely advance notice in writing, and specify requirements as to the form and content of a stockholder’s notice.
The combination of these provisions may make it more difficult for our existing stockholders to replace our board of directors as well as for another party to obtain control of us by replacing our board of directors. Since our board of directors has the power to retain and discharge our officers, these provisions could also make it more difficult for existing stockholders or another party to effect a change in management. In addition, the authorization of undesignated preferred stock makes it possible for our board of directors to issue preferred stock with voting or other rights or preferences that could impede the success of any attempt to change our control.
These provisions are intended to enhance the likelihood of continued stability in the composition of our board of directors and its policies and to discourage coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids. These provisions are also designed to reduce our vulnerability to hostile takeovers and to discourage certain tactics that may be used in proxy fights. However, such provisions could have the effect of discouraging others from making tender offers for our shares and may have the effect of delaying changes in our control or management. As a consequence, these provisions may also inhibit fluctuations in the market price of our stock that could result from actual or rumored takeover attempts. We believe that the benefits of these provisions, including increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with the proponent of an unfriendly or unsolicited proposal to acquire or restructure our company, outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging takeover proposals, because negotiation of takeover proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Transfer Agent and Registrar
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Company, LLC, with offices at 6201 15th Avenue, Brooklyn, New York 11219. The transfer agent for any series of preferred stock that we may offer under this prospectus will be named and described in the prospectus supplement for that series.
Listing on Nasdaq
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market under the symbol “MRKR.”
 
S-15

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a Controlled Equity OfferingSM sales agreement, or the sales agreement, with the Sales Agents, under which we may offer and sell up to $75,000,000 of shares of our common stock from time to time through the Sales Agents, acting as agents. Sales of the shares of common stock, if any, may be made at market prices by any method deemed to be an “at the market” offering as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act, including, without limitation, sales made directly on The Nasdaq Global Market or any other existing trading market for our common stock.
We may instruct the Sales Agents not to sell our common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us from time to time. We or the Sales Agents may suspend or terminate the offering of our common stock upon notice and subject to other conditions.
We will pay the Sales Agents commissions, in cash, for their services for acting as Sales Agents in the sale of our common stock. The aggregate compensation payable to the Sales Agents will be 3.0% of the gross sales price of shares sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We will also reimburse the Sales Agents up to $75,000 for their fees and expenses incurred in connection with the establishment of this offering program and $25,000 on each “Representation Date” as set forth in the Sales Agreement. In accordance with FINRA Rule 5110 these reimbursed fees and expenses are deemed sales compensation in connection with this offering. We estimate that the total expenses for the offering, excluding commissions and expense reimbursement payable to the Sales Agents under the terms of the sales agreement, will be approximately $250,000. Because there is no minimum offering amount required as a condition to this offering, the actual total public offering amount, commissions and proceeds to us, if any, are not determinable at this time.
Settlement for sales of shares of our common stock will occur on the second trading day following the date on which any sales are made (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading), in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. Sales of our common stock as contemplated in this prospectus will be settled through the facilities of The Depository Trust Company or by such other means as we and the Sales Agents may agree upon. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
The Sales Agents will use their commercially reasonable efforts, consistent with their sales and trading practices, to solicit offers to purchase shares of our common stock under the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the sales agreement. In connection with the sale of shares of our common stock on our behalf, each of the Sales Agents will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of the Sales Agents may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to the Sales Agents against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act.
The offering pursuant to the sales agreement will terminate upon the earlier of (1) the sale of all shares of our common stock subject to the sales agreement or (2) the termination of the sales agreement as permitted therein. We and the Sales Agents may each terminate the sales agreement at any time upon ten days’ prior notice.
The Sales Agents and their affiliates may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they may in the future receive customary fees. To the extent required by Regulation M, the Sales Agents will not engage in any market making activities involving our common stock while the offering is ongoing under this prospectus.
This prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus in electronic format may be made available on a website maintained by each of the Sales Agents and the Sales Agents may distribute this prospectus and the accompanying base prospectus electronically.
Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Market and trades under the symbol “MRKR.”
The transfer agent of our common stock is American Stock Transfer & Company, LLC.
 
S-16

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Cooley LLP, New York, New York. Covington & Burling LLP, New York, New York, is counsel to Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC in connection with this offering.
EXPERTS
Marcum LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our consolidated financial statements as of and for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, as set forth in its report included in our 2020 Annual Report on Form 10-K. Our 2020 and 2019 financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Marcum LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement and the exhibits to the registration statement. For further information with respect to us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, we refer you to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed as a part of the registration statement. You should rely only on the information contained in this prospectus or incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have not authorized anyone else to provide you with different information. We are not making an offer of these securities in any state where the offer is not permitted. You should not assume that the information in this prospectus is accurate as of any date other than the date on the front page of this prospectus, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of the securities offered by this prospectus.
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a website at http://www.sec.gov that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers, such as us, that file electronically with the SEC.
Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.markertherapeutics.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus. We have included our website address as an inactive textual reference only.
 
S-17

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC allows us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The SEC file number for the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus is 001-37939. The documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus contain important information that you should read about us.
The following documents are incorporated by reference into this document:

our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, filed with the SEC on March 9, 2021;

the information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2020 from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 23, 2021, as supplemented on May 5, 2021;

our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the fiscal quarters ended March 31, 2021 and June 30, 2021, filed with the SEC on May 12, 2021 and August 10, 2021, respectively;

our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on March 16, 2021 and June 11, 2021; and

the description of our common stock set forth in the amendment to the registration statement on Form 8-A registering our common stock under Section 12 of the Exchange Act, which was filed with the SEC on October 17, 2018, including any amendments or reports filed for purposes of updating such description.
We also incorporate by reference into this prospectus all documents (other than current reports furnished under Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K and exhibits filed on such form that are related to such items) that are filed by us with the SEC pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (i) after the date of the initial filing of the registration statement of which this prospectus forms a part and prior to effectiveness of the registration statement, or (ii) after the date of this prospectus but prior to the termination of the offering. These documents include periodic reports, such as Annual Reports on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and Current Reports on Form 8-K, as well as proxy statements.
We will provide to each person, including any beneficial owner, to whom a prospectus is delivered, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any or all of the documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus but not delivered with the prospectus, including exhibits that are specifically incorporated by reference into such documents. You should direct any requests for documents to Marker Therapeutics, Inc., Attn: Corporate Secretary, 3200 Southwest Freeway, Suite 2500, Houston, Texas 77027, and our telephone number is (713) 400-6400.
Any statement contained in this prospectus or contained in a document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or any subsequently filed supplement to this prospectus, or document deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, modifies or supersedes such statement.
 
S-18

TABLE OF CONTENTS
$75,000,000
Common Stock
[MISSING IMAGE: lg_markertherapeutics-4clr.jpg]
PROSPECTUS
Cantor
RBC Capital Markets
          , 2021

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN THE PROSPECTUS
Item 14.
Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following table sets forth the estimated costs and expenses, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, payable by us in connection with the offering of the securities being registered. All the amounts shown are estimates, except for the SEC registration fee.
SEC registration fee
$ 32,730
Accounting fees and expenses
*
Legal fees and expenses
*
Transfer agent fees and expenses
*
Trustee fees and expenses
*
Printing and miscellaneous expenses
*
Total
$ *
*
These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and, accordingly, cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.
Indemnification of Officers and Directors
We are incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware. Subsection (a) of Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or the DGCL, empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or who is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful.
Subsection (b) of Section 145 empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person acted in any of the capacities set forth above, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.
Section 145 further provides that to the extent a director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith; that indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the indemnified party may be entitled; and the indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director,
 
II-1

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of such person’s heirs, executors and administrators. Section 145 also empowers the corporation to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liabilities under Section 145.
Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides that a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may contain a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director, provided that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
Our bylaws provide that we will indemnify each person made, or threatened to be made, a party to an action or proceeding by reason of the fact that he or she is or was a director or officer of our company, or a director officer of a predecessor corporation or of another corporation if such person served in such position at our request, against all expenses incurred in defending a criminal or civil action, suit or proceeding. Such expenses will be paid by us in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of such director to repay any advanced amounts if it is ultimately determined that he or she is not entitled to indemnification as authorized by relevant section of the DGCL. We are not obligated to advance expenses to an agent who is a party to an action, suit or proceeding brought by us and approved by a majority of our board of directors alleging willful misappropriate of corporate assets by such agent, disclosure of confidential information in violation of such agent’s fiduciary or contractual obligations to us or any other willful and deliberate breach in bad faith of such agent’s duty to us or our stockholders.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify our directors and officers for some expenses, including attorneys’ fees, judgments, fines and settlement amounts incurred by a director or officer in any action or proceeding arising out of his or her service as one of our directors or officers, or any of our subsidiaries or any other company or enterprise to which the person provides services at our request.
We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of directors and officers of our corporation arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.
Pursuant to the terms of the Merger Agreement and subject to applicable law, from the effective time of the merger, or the Effective Time, through the sixth anniversary of the date on which the Effective Time occurs, we and TapImmune shall each jointly and severally indemnify and hold harmless each person who is, or has been at any time prior to the date thereof, or who became prior to the Effective Time, a director or officer of TapImmune or Private Marker, respectively, against all costs incurred in connection with any claim, action, suit, proceeding or investigation, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative, arising out of or pertaining to the fact that such person is or was a director or officer of TapImmune or Private Marker, whether asserted or claimed prior to, at or after the Effective Time, in each case, to the fullest extent permitted under the DGCL for directors or officers of Delaware corporations, provided that any such person to whom expenses are advanced provides an undertaking, as applicable, to the extent then required by the DGCL, to repay such advances if it is ultimately determined that such person is not entitled to indemnification.
Further, pursuant to the Merger Agreement, the provisions of our certificate of incorporation and our bylaws shall contain provisions no less favorable with respect to indemnification, advancement of expenses and exculpation of present and former directors and officers of each of TapImmune and Private Marker than were set forth in the certificate of incorporation and bylaws of TapImmune and Private Marker, as applicable, and such provisions shall not be amended, modified or repealed for a period of six years from
 
II-2

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
the Effective Time in a manner that would adversely affect the rights thereunder of individuals who, at or prior to the Effective Time, were officers or directors of TapImmune or Private Marker.
We shall pay all expenses, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, that are incurred by indemnified persons in connection with their enforcement of the rights provided to such persons in the Merger Agreement. The director and officer indemnification provisions of the Merger Agreement are intended to be in addition to the rights otherwise available to the former officers and directors of TapImmune and Private Marker by law, charter, statute, bylaw or agreement, and shall operate for the benefit of, and shall be enforceable by, each of such indemnified persons, their heirs and their representatives.
In the event we or TapImmune (i) consolidates with or merges into any other person and shall not be the continuing or surviving corporation or entity of such consolidation or merger, or (ii) transfers all or substantially all of its properties and assets to any person, then, and in each such case, proper provision shall be made so that our successors and assigns shall succeed to the indemnification obligations set forth in the Merger Agreement.
The underwriting or sales agreement, if any, entered into with respect to an offering of securities registered hereunder will provide for indemnification by any underwriters of any offering, our directors and officers who sign the registration statement and our controlling persons for some liabilities, including liabilities arising under the Securities Act.
Item 16.
Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules
Exhibit
Number
Description of Document
  1.1*
Form of Underwriting Agreement.
 1.2
Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated as of August 10, 2021, by and among the Registrant, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC.
 2.1
Agreement and Plan of Merger and Reorganization, dated as of May 15, 2018 (incorporated by reference to Annex A to the Registrant’s Definitive Proxy Statement (File No. 001-37939), filed with the SEC on September 14, 2018).
 3.1
Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.4 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37939), filed with the SEC on October 17, 2018).
 3.2
 4.1
Specimen Stock Certificate evidencing shares of Common Stock of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K (File No. 001-37939) filed with the SEC on October 17, 2018).
  4.2*
Form of Specimen Preferred Stock Certificate and Certificate of Designation of Preferred Stock.
 4.3
  4.4*
Form of Debt Securities.
 4.5
 4.6
 4.7
 5.1
23.1
23.2
24.1
   25.1**
Statement of Eligibility of Trustee under the Indenture.
*
To be filed, if applicable, by amendment or by a report filed under the Exchange Act and incorporated herein by reference.
 
II-3

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
**
To be filed, if applicable, in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and Rule 5b-3 thereunder.
Item 17.
Undertakings
The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)
To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)
To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)
To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)
To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (1)(i), (1)(ii) and (1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or are contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.
(2)
That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)
To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(4)
That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(i)
Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(ii)
Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document
 
II-4

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(5)
That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser: (i) any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (ii) any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant; (iii) the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and (iv) any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(6)
That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(7)
To file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.
Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act of 1933 and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
 
II-5

TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Houston, State of Texas, on this 10th day of August, 2021.
MARKER THERAPEUTICS, INC.
By:
/s/ Peter Hoang
Peter Hoang
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, that each person whose signature appears below hereby constitutes and appoints Peter Hoang and Anthony Kim, jointly and severally, as his or her true and lawful agent, proxy and attorneys-in-fact, with full power of substitution and resubstitution, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, in any and all capacities, to (i) act on, sign and file with the Securities and Exchange Commission any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to this registration statement together with all schedules and exhibits thereto and any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, together with all schedules and exhibits thereto, (ii) act on, sign and file such certificates, instruments, agreements and other documents as may be necessary or appropriate in connection therewith, (iii) act on and file any supplement to any prospectus included in this registration statement or any such amendment or any subsequent registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and (iv) take any and all actions which may be necessary or appropriate to be done, as fully for all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby approving, ratifying and confirming all that such agent, proxy and attorney-in-fact or any of his substitutes may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue thereof.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
Name
Title
Date
/s/ Peter Hoang
Peter Hoang
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
August 10, 2021
/s/ Anthony Kim
Anthony Kim
Chief Financial Officer
(Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)
August 10, 2021
/s/ Frederick Wasserman
Frederick Wasserman
Chairman of the Board
August 10, 2021
/s/ David Laskow-Pooley
David Laskow-Pooley
Director
August 10, 2021
/s/ John Wilson
John Wilson
Director
August 10, 2021
/s/ Juan Vera
Juan Vera
Director
August 10, 2021
/s/ N. David Eansor
N. David Eansor
Director
August 10, 2021
/s/ Steve Elms
Steve Elms
Director
August 10, 2021
 
II-6

Exhibit 1.2

Execution Version 

Marker Therapeutics, Inc.
Shares of Common Stock

(par value $0.001 per share)

Controlled Equity OfferingSM

Sales Agreement

August 10, 2021

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

and

RBC Capital Markets

200 Vesey St., 9th Floor

New York, NY 10281

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Marker Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC (each, an “Agent,” and together, the “Agents”), as follows:

1.             Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agents, shares of common stock (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company, par value $0.001 per share (the “Common Stock”); provided, however, that in no event shall the Company issue or sell through the Agents such number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that would (a) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered on the effective Registration Statement (defined below) pursuant to which the offering is being made, (b) exceed the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (c) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be sold under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6 thereof, if applicable) or (d) exceed the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed a Prospectus Supplement (defined below) (the lesser of (a), (b), (c) and (d), the “Maximum Amount”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 1 on the amount of Placement Shares issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company and that the Agents shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The offer and sale of Placement Shares through the Agents will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) on August 10, 2021 after such Registration Statement has been declared effective by the Commission, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement to issue Placement Shares.

The Company has filed, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”) and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “Securities Act Regulations”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), and the rules and regulations thereunder. The Company has prepared a prospectus or a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus included as part of the registration statement, which prospectus or prospectus supplement relates to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company (the “Prospectus Supplement”). The Company will furnish to the Agents, for use by the Agents, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented, by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time by the Company. The Company may file one or more additional registration statements from time to time that will contain a base prospectus and related prospectus or prospectus supplement, if applicable (which shall be a Prospectus Supplement), with respect to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement(s), including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus or base prospectuses, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented, if necessary, by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus or prospectuses and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b), together with the then issued Issuer Free Writing Prospectus(es), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (defined below) shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, any Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the date of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system, or if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

-2-

2.             Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify an Agent (such Agent, the “Designated Agent”) by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to by the parties) of the number of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one day and any minimum price below which sales may not be made (a “Placement Notice”), the form of which is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 3 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from the Designated Agent set forth on Schedule 3, as such Schedule 3 may be amended from time to time. The Placement Notice shall be effective unless and until (i) the Designated Agent declines in writing to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, which declination must occur within two (2) Business Days of the receipt of the Placement Notice, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares thereunder have been sold, (iii) the Company amends, supersedes, suspends or terminates the Placement Notice or (iv) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 12. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Designated Agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 2. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Designated Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Designated Agent and the Designated Agent does not decline (and the Company does not suspend or terminate) such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.

3.             Sale of Placement Shares by the Agents. Subject to the provisions of Section 5(a), the Designated Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Market (the “Exchange”), to sell the Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Designated Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the compensation payable by the Company to the Designated Agent pursuant to Section 2 with respect to such sales, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company, with an itemization of the deductions made by the Designated Agent (as set forth in Section 5(b)) from the gross proceeds that it receives from such sales. Subject to the terms of the Placement Notice, the Designated Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act Regulations, including sales made directly on or through the Exchange or any other existing trading market for the Common Stock, in negotiated transactions at market prices prevailing at the time of sale or at prices related to such prevailing market prices and/or any other method permitted by law. “Trading Day” means any day on which Common Stock is traded on the Exchange.

4.             Suspension of Sales. The Company or the Designated Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 3), suspend any sale of Placement Shares (a “Suspension”); provided, however, that such Suspension shall not affect or impair any party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a Suspension is in effect any obligation under Sections 7(l), 7(m), and 7(n) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to the Agents, shall be waived. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against any other party unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 3 hereto, as such Schedule may be amended from time to time.

-3-

5.             Sale and Delivery to the Agent; Settlement.

(a)            Sale of Placement Shares. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Designated Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Designated Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Designated Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Designated Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Designated Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable law and regulations to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Designated Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement, except as otherwise agreed by the Designated Agent and the Company.

(b)            Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The Designated Agent shall notify the Company of each sale of Placement Shares no later than the opening of the Trading Day immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder. The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by the Designated Agent, after deduction for (i) the Designated Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, and (ii) any transaction fees imposed by any Governmental Authority (as defined below) in respect of such sales.

(c)            Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting the Designated Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Designated Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee at least one Trading Day prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Designated Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. If the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver Placement Shares on a Settlement Date, the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 10(a) hereto, it will (i) hold the Designated Agent harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) through no fault of the Agents and (ii) pay to the Designated Agent (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.

-4-

(d)           Denominations; Registration. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agents may request in writing at least one full Business Day (as defined below) before the Settlement Date. The certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agents in The City of New York not later than noon (New York time) on the Business Day prior to the Settlement Date.

(e)            Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of (A) together with all sales of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the Maximum Amount and (B) the amount authorized from time to time to be issued and sold under this Agreement by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee, and notified to the Designated Agent in writing. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors, a duly authorized committee thereof or a duly authorized executive committee. Further, under no circumstances shall the Company cause or permit the aggregate offering amount of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement to exceed the Maximum Amount.

(f)            Sales Through Agents. With respect to the offering and sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the Company agrees that any offer to sell Placement Shares, any solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares, and any sales of Placement Shares shall only be effected by or through one single Agent as the Designated Agent on any single given Trading Day, and in no event shall the Company request that more than one Agent offer or sell Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement on the same Trading Day.

6.             Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with Agents that as of the date of this Agreement and as of each Applicable Time (as defined below), unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies a different time:

(a)            Registration Statement and Prospectus. No order preventing or suspending the use of the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto) has been issued by the Commission and no proceeding for that purpose has been initiated or is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission. As of the time each part of the Registration Statement (or any post-effective amendment thereto) became or becomes effective (including each deemed effective date with respect to the Agents pursuant to Rule 430B or otherwise under the Securities Act), such part conformed or will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act and the Securities Act Regulations. Upon the filing or first use within the meaning of the Securities Act Regulations, the Prospectus (or any supplement thereto) conformed or will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act and the Securities Act Regulations. The Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto has become effective under the Securities Act. The Company has complied to the Commission’s satisfaction with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, any post-effective amendment or any part thereof is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, are threatened by the Commission.

-5-

(b)           Accurate Disclosure. The Registration Statement, when it became or becomes effective, and the Prospectus, and any amendment or supplement thereto, on the date of such Prospectus or amendment or supplement, conformed and will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. At each Settlement Date, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as of such date, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act. The Registration Statement, when it becomes effective, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus and any amendment and supplement thereto, on the date thereof and at each Applicable Time, will not include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus or any Prospectus Supplement did not, and any further documents filed and incorporated by reference therein will not, when filed with the Commission, contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated in such document or necessary to make the statements in such document, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The foregoing shall not apply to statements in, or omissions from, any such document made in reliance upon, and in conformity with, information furnished to the Company by Agents specifically for use in the preparation thereof.

(c)            Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses. (i) Each Issuer Free Writing Prospectus does not include any information that conflicts with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus. The foregoing sentence does not apply to statements in or omissions from any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus based upon and in conformity with written information furnished to the Company by you or by any Agents through you specifically for use therein; it being understood and agreed that the only such information furnished by any Agent consists of the Agent Information (as defined below).

(ii)              (1) At the earliest time after the filing of the Registration Statement that the Company or another offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2)) of the Placement Shares and (2) at the date hereof, the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer,” as defined in Rule 405, including the Company or any subsidiary in the preceding three years not having been convicted of a felony or misdemeanor or having been made the subject of a judicial or administrative decree or order as described in Rule 405 (without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an ineligible issuer), nor an “excluded issuer” as defined in Rule 164.

-6-

(iii)            Each issuer free writing prospectus satisfied, as of its issue date and at each Applicable Time, all other conditions to use thereof as set forth in Rules 164 and 433.

(d)           No Other Offering Materials. The Company has not distributed and will not distribute any prospectus or other offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus to which the Agents have consented, any such consent not to be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, or other materials permitted by the Securities Act to be distributed by the Company; provided, however, that, except as set forth on Exhibit A hereto, the Company has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, except in accordance with the provisions of Section 21 of this Agreement.

(e)            Financial Statements. The financial statements of the Company, together with the related notes, set forth or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act and fairly present the financial condition of the Company and its consolidated subsidiaries as of the dates indicated and the results of operations and changes in cash flows for the periods therein specified in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“GAAP”) consistently applied throughout the periods involved; the supporting schedules, if any, included in, or incorporated by reference into, the Registration Statement present fairly the information required to be stated therein; all non-GAAP financial information included in, or incorporated by reference into, the Registration Statement and the Prospectus complies in all material respects with the requirements of Regulation G and Item 10 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Act; and, except as disclosed in the Prospectus, there are no material off-balance sheet arrangements (as defined in Regulation S-K under the Securities Act, Item 303(a)(4)(ii)) or any other relationships with unconsolidated entities or other persons, that may have a material current or, to the Company’s knowledge, material future effect on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures, capital resources or significant components of revenue or expenses. No other financial statements or schedules are required to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus. To the Company’s knowledge, Marcum LLP, which has expressed its opinion with respect to the financial statements and schedules filed as, or incorporated by reference into, a part of the Registration Statement and included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is (x) an independent public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the Securities Act Regulations, (y) a registered public accounting firm (as defined in Section 2(a)(12) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”)) and (z) not in violation of the auditor independence requirements of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.

(f)            Organization and Good Standing. Each of the Company and its subsidiaries has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of incorporation. Each of the Company and its subsidiaries has full corporate power and authority to own its properties and conduct its business as currently being carried on and as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, and is duly qualified to do business as a foreign corporation in good standing in each jurisdiction in which it owns or leases real property or in which the conduct of its business makes such qualification necessary and in which the failure to so qualify would have a material adverse effect upon the business, prospects, management, properties, operations, condition (financial or otherwise) or results of operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole (“Material Adverse Effect”).

-7-

(g)            Absence of Certain Events. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has incurred any material liabilities or obligations, direct or contingent, or entered into any material transactions, or declared or paid any dividends or made any distribution of any kind with respect to its capital stock; and there has not been any change in the capital stock (other than a change in the number of outstanding shares of Common Stock due to the issuance of shares upon the exercise of outstanding options or warrants or conversion of convertible securities), or any material change in the short-term or long-term debt (other than as a result of the conversion of convertible securities), or any issuance of options, warrants, convertible securities or other rights to purchase the capital stock, of the Company or any of its subsidiaries, or any material adverse change in the general affairs, condition (financial or otherwise), business, prospects, management, properties, operations or results of operations of the Company and its subsidiaries, taken as a whole (“Material Adverse Change”) or any development which could reasonably be expected to result in any Material Adverse Change.

(h)           Absence of Proceedings. Except as set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, there is not pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened or contemplated, any action, suit or proceeding (a) to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or (b) which has as the subject thereof any officer or director of the Company or any subsidiary, any employee benefit plan sponsored by the Company or any subsidiary or any property or assets owned or leased by the Company or any subsidiary before or by any court or Governmental Authority, or any arbitrator, which, individually or in the aggregate, might reasonably be expected to result in any Material Adverse Change, or would materially and adversely affect the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or which are otherwise material in the context of the sale of the Placement Shares. There are no current or, to the knowledge of the Company, pending, legal, governmental or regulatory actions, suits or proceedings (x) to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject or (y) which has as the subject thereof any officer or director of the Company or any subsidiary, any employee plan sponsored by the Company or any subsidiary or any property or assets owned or leased by the Company or any subsidiary, that are required to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus by the Securities Act or by the Securities Act Regulations and that have not been so described.

(i)             Disclosure of Legal Matters. There are no statutes, regulations, contracts or documents that are required to be described in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus or required to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement by the Securities Act or by the Securities Act Regulations that have not been so described or filed.

-8-

(j)             Authorization; No Conflicts; Authority. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company, and constitutes a valid, legal and binding obligation of the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnity hereunder may be limited by federal or state securities laws and except as such enforceability may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or similar laws affecting the rights of creditors generally and subject to general principles of equity. The execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions herein contemplated will not (A) conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, or result in the creation or imposition of any lien, charge or encumbrance upon any property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries pursuant to any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, (B) result in any violation of the provisions of the Company’s charter or bylaws or (C) result in the violation of any law or statute or any judgment, order, rule, regulation or decree of any Governmental Authority, except in the case of clauses (A) and (C) as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. No consent, approval, authorization or order of, or registration or filing with any Governmental Authority is required for the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement or for the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby, including the issuance or sale of the Placement Shares by the Company, except such as may be required under the Securities Act, the rules of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) or state securities or blue sky laws; and the Company has full power and authority to enter into this Agreement and to consummate the transactions contemplated hereby, including the authorization, issuance and sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated by this Agreement.

(k)            Capitalization; the Placement Shares; Registration Rights. All of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company, including the outstanding shares of Common Stock, are duly authorized and validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable, have been issued in compliance with all federal and state and foreign securities laws, were not issued in violation of or subject to any preemptive rights or other rights to subscribe for or purchase securities that have not been waived in writing (a copy of which has been delivered to counsel to the Agents), and the holders thereof are not subject to personal liability by reason of being such holders; the Placement Shares which may be sold hereunder by the Company have been duly authorized and, when issued, delivered and paid for in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, will have been validly issued and will be fully paid and nonassessable, and the holders thereof will not be subject to personal liability by reason of being such holders; and the capital stock of the Company, including the Common Stock, conforms to the description thereof in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus. Except as otherwise stated in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus, (A) there are no preemptive rights or other rights to subscribe for or to purchase, or any restriction upon the voting or transfer of, any shares of Common Stock pursuant to the Company’s charter, bylaws or any agreement or other instrument to which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is a party or by which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is bound; and (B) neither the filing of the Registration Statement nor the offering or sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated by this Agreement gives rise to any rights for or relating to the registration of any shares of Common Stock or other securities of the Company (collectively “Registration Rights”). All of the issued and outstanding shares of capital stock of each of the Company’s subsidiaries have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and nonassessable, and, except as otherwise described in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus, the Company owns of record and beneficially, free and clear of any security interests, claims, liens, proxies, equities or other encumbrances, all of the issued and outstanding shares of such stock. The Company has an authorized and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus under the caption “Capitalization.” The Common Stock (including the Placement Shares) conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Prospectus.

-9-

(l)             Stock Options. Except as described in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus, there are no options, warrants, agreements, contracts or other rights in existence to purchase or acquire from the Company or any subsidiary of the Company any shares of the capital stock of the Company or any subsidiary of the Company. The description of the Company’s stock option, stock bonus and other stock plans or arrangements (the “Company Stock Plans”), and the options (the “Options”) or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Prospectus accurately and fairly presents in all material respects the information required to be shown with respect to such plans, arrangements, options and rights. Each grant of an Option (A) was duly authorized no later than the date on which the grant of such Option was by its terms to be effective by all necessary corporate action, including, as applicable, approval by the board of directors of the Company (or a duly constituted and authorized committee thereof) and any required stockholder approval by the necessary number of votes or written consents, and the award agreement governing such grant (if any) was duly executed and delivered by each party thereto and (B) was made in accordance with the terms of the applicable Company Stock Plan, and all applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, including all applicable federal securities laws.

(m)           Compliance with Laws. Except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, whether singularly or in the aggregate: (A) the Company and each of its subsidiaries holds, and is operating in compliance with, all franchises, grants, authorizations, licenses, permits, easements, consents, certificates and orders of any Governmental Authority or self-regulatory body required for the conduct of its business and all such franchises, grants, authorizations, licenses, permits, easements, consents, certifications and orders are valid and in full force and effect; (B) neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has received notice of any revocation or modification of any such franchise, grant, authorization, license, permit, easement, consent, certification or order or has reason to believe that any such franchise, grant, authorization, license, permit, easement, consent, certification or order will not be renewed in the ordinary course; and (C) the Company and each of its subsidiaries is in compliance with all applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, regulations, orders and decrees.

(n)           Ownership of Assets. The Company and its subsidiaries have good and marketable title to all property (whether real or personal) described in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus as being owned by them, in each case free and clear of all liens, claims, security interests, other encumbrances or defects except such as are described in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus or as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company. The property held under lease by the Company and its subsidiaries is held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with only such exceptions with respect to any particular lease as do not interfere in any material respect with the conduct of the business of the Company or its subsidiaries.

-10-

(o)            Intellectual Property. The Company owns or has valid, binding and enforceable licenses or other rights to practice and use all patents and patent applications, copyrights, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, trade names, service names and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) and all other technology and intellectual property rights necessary for, or used in the conduct, or the proposed conduct, of the business of the Company in the manner described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, the “Company Intellectual Property”), and, to the Company’s knowledge, the conduct of its business (including the development and commercialization of the product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus) has not and will not infringe or misappropriate any intellectual property rights of others; there are no rights of third parties to any of the intellectual property owned by the Company, and such intellectual property is owned by the Company free and clear of all material liens, security interests, or encumbrances; to the knowledge of the Company, the patents, trademarks and copyrights held or licensed by the Company included within the Company Intellectual Property are valid, enforceable and subsisting; to the Company’s knowledge, there is no infringement by third parties of any of the Company Intellectual Property; other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) the Company is not obligated to pay a material royalty, grant a license, or provide other material consideration to any third party in connection with the Company Intellectual Property, (ii) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, alleging that the Company is infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating any rights of others with respect to any of the Company’s product candidates, processes or intellectual property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim, (iii) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, challenging the validity, enforceability, scope, registration, ownership or use of any of the Company’s Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim, (iv) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, challenging the Company’s rights in or to any Company Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which could form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim, (v) the Company has not received written notice of any claim of infringement, misappropriation or conflict with any asserted rights of others with respect to any of the Company’s products, proposed products, processes or Company Intellectual Property, (vi) to the knowledge of the Company, the development, manufacture, sale, and any currently proposed use of any of the products, proposed products or processes of the Company referred to in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, in the current or proposed conduct of the business of the Company, do not currently, and will not upon commercialization, to the knowledge of the Company, infringe any right or valid patent claim of any third party, (vii) to the knowledge of the Company, no third party has any ownership right in or to any Company Intellectual Property in any field of use that is exclusively licensed to the Company, other than any licensor to the Company of such Company Intellectual Property, (viii) to the knowledge of the Company, no employee, consultant or independent contractor of the Company is in or has ever been in violation in any material respect of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement nondisclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer or independent contractor where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment or independent contractor’s engagement with the Company or actions undertaken while employed or engaged with the Company, (ix) the Company has taken reasonable measures to protect its confidential information and trade secrets and to maintain and safeguard the Company’s Intellectual Property, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements, and to the Company’s knowledge, no employee of the Company is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement, or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company, and (x) the Company has complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which the Company’s Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. All patents and patent applications owned by or licensed to the Company or under which the Company has rights have, to the knowledge of the Company, been duly and properly filed and maintained; to the knowledge of the Company, there are no material defects in any of the patents or patent applications disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned by the Company; to the knowledge of the Company, the parties prosecuting such applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) in connection with such applications; and the Company is not aware of any facts required to be disclosed to the USPTO that were not disclosed to the USPTO and which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or could form the basis of a finding of invalidity with respect to any patents that have issued with respect to such applications.

-11-

(p)           Health Care Authorizations. The Company possesses, and is in compliance with the terms of, all applications, certificates, approvals, clearances, registrations, exemptions, franchises, licenses, permits, consents and other authorizations necessary to conduct its business, as currently conducted (collectively, “Licenses”), issued by the appropriate Governmental Authorities, including, without limitation, all Licenses required by the Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), or any component thereof, the National Institutes of Health and/or by any other U.S., state, local or foreign government or drug regulatory agency (collectively, the “Regulatory Agencies”), other than for such instances of non-compliance which would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. All Licenses are in full force and effect and, to the Company’s knowledge, the Company is not in violation of any term or conditions of any License. The Company has fulfilled and performed all of its respective obligations with respect to the Licenses and, to the Company’s knowledge, no event has occurred which allows, or after notice or lapse of time would allow, revocation or termination thereof or results in any other impairment of the rights of the holder of any License. The Company has not received any written notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any Licenses and no Regulatory Agency has taken any action to limit, suspend or revoke any License possessed by the Company.

(q)           Clinical Trials. The clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being, conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols submitted to FDA or any foreign governmental body exercising comparable authority, procedures and controls pursuant to, where applicable, accepted professional and scientific standards, and all applicable laws and regulations; the descriptions of the clinical trials conducted by or, to the Company’s knowledge, on behalf of the Company, and the results thereof, contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are accurate and complete in all material respects; the Company is not aware of any other clinical trials, the results of which reasonably call into question the results described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and the Company has not received any notices or correspondence from the FDA, any foreign, state or local governmental body exercising comparable authority or any Institutional Review Board requiring the termination, suspension, material modification or clinical hold of any clinical trials conducted by or on behalf of the Company.

-12-

(r)            Compliance with Health Care Laws. The Company and its directors, officers and employees, and to the Company’s knowledge, its respective agents, affiliates and representatives, are, and at all times have been, in compliance with all Health Care Laws (as defined below), including, but not limited to, the rules and regulations of the FDA, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, and has not engaged in any activities which are, as applicable, cause for false claims liability, civil penalties, or mandatory or permissive exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid, or any other local, state or federal healthcare program, other than for such instances of non-compliance which would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. For purposes of this Agreement, “Health Care Laws” shall mean the federal Anti-kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)), the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), the civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Claims Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), all criminal laws relating to health care fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286 and 287, and the health care fraud criminal provisions under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. §§ 1320d et seq.) (“HIPAA”), the exclusion laws (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (42 U.S.C. §§ 17921 et seq.), the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.), Medicare statute (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act), Medicaid statute (Title XIX of the Social Security Act), Medicaid Drug Rebate Program (42 U.S.C. § 1396r-8), Medicare average sales price reporting (42 U.S.C. § 1395w-3a), the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. § 256b), the VA Federal Supply Schedule (38 U.S.C § 8126) or the rules and regulations of any other federal, state or local governmental or regulatory body or authority. The Company is not a party to or has any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreement, deferred prosecution agreement, monitoring agreement, consent decree, settlement order, plan of correction or similar agreement imposed by any governmental authority. The Company has not received any notification, correspondence or any other written or oral communication, including, without limitation, any FDA Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other correspondence or notice from the FDA or any similar regulatory authority, or any notification of any pending or threatened claim, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action, from any governmental authority of non-compliance by, or liability of, the Company or its subsidiaries under any Health Care Laws.

(s)            No Violations or Defaults. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is (i) in violation of its respective charter, bylaws or other organizational documents, or (ii) in breach of or otherwise in default, and no event has occurred which, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default in the performance of any material obligation, agreement or condition contained in any bond, debenture, note, indenture, loan agreement or any other material contract, lease or other instrument to which it is subject or by which any of them may be bound, or to which any of the material property or assets of the Company or any of its subsidiaries is subject, except as would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(t)            Taxes. The Company and its subsidiaries have timely filed all federal, state, local and foreign income and franchise tax returns required to be filed and are not in default in the payment of any taxes which were payable pursuant to said returns or any assessments with respect thereto, other than any which the Company or any of its subsidiaries is contesting in good faith, except where such dispute or liability would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect. There is no pending dispute with any taxing authority relating to any of such returns, and the Company has no knowledge of any proposed liability for any tax to be imposed upon the properties or assets of the Company for which there is not an adequate reserve reflected in the Company’s financial statements incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, except where such dispute or liability would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

-13-

(u)           Exchange Listing and Exchange Act Registration. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is included or approved for listing on the Exchange and the Company has taken no action designed to, or likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or the Exchange is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company has complied in all material respects with the applicable requirements of the Exchange for maintenance of inclusion of the Common Stock thereon. The Company has filed an application to include the Placement Shares on the Exchange. To the knowledge of the Company, no beneficial owners of the Company’s capital stock or subordinated debt who, together with their associated persons and affiliates, hold in the aggregate 10% or more of such capital stock or subordinated debt, have any direct or indirect association or affiliate with a FINRA member.

(v)           Ownership of Other Entities. Other than the subsidiaries of the Company listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, the Company, directly or indirectly, owns no capital stock or other equity or ownership or proprietary interest in any corporation, partnership, association, trust or other entity.

(w)          Internal Controls. The Company and its subsidiaries maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurances that transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP and to maintain accountability for assets; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences; and (v) interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and is prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and none of the Company, its board of directors and audit committee is aware of any “significant deficiencies” or “material weaknesses” (each as defined by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board) in its internal control over financial reporting, or any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees of the Company and its subsidiaries who have a significant role in the Company’s internal controls; and since the end of the latest audited fiscal year, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting. The Company’s board of directors has, subject to the exceptions, cure periods and the phase in periods specified in the applicable stock exchange rules (“Exchange Rules”), validly appointed an audit committee to oversee internal accounting controls whose composition satisfies the applicable requirements of the Exchange Rules and the Company’s board of directors and/or the audit committee has adopted a charter that satisfies the requirements of the Exchange Rules.

-14-

(x)            No Brokers or Finders. Other than as contemplated by this Agreement, the Company has not incurred any liability for any finder’s or broker’s fee or agent’s commission in connection with the execution and delivery of this Agreement or the consummation of the transactions contemplated hereby.

(y)           Insurance. The Company and each of its subsidiaries carries, or is covered by, insurance from reputable insurers in such amounts and covering such risks as is adequate for the conduct of its business and the value of its properties and the properties of its subsidiaries and as is reasonable and customary for companies engaged in similar businesses in similar industries; all policies of insurance and any fidelity or surety bonds insuring the Company or any of its subsidiaries or its business, assets, employees, officers and directors are in full force and effect; the Company and its subsidiaries are in compliance with the terms of such policies and instruments in all material respects; there are no claims by the Company or any of its subsidiaries under any such policy or instrument as to which any insurance company is denying liability or defending under a reservation of rights clause; neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(z)            Investment Company Act. The Company is not and, after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares in accordance with this Agreement and the application of proceeds as described in the Prospectus under the caption “Use of Proceeds,” will not be an “investment company,” within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(aa)          Eligibility to use Form S-3. The conditions for use of Form S-3, set forth in the General Instructions thereto, have been satisfied. The aggregate market value of the outstanding voting and non-voting common equity (as defined in Rule 405) of the Company held by persons other than affiliates of the Company (pursuant to Rule 144, those that directly, or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control, or are controlled by, or are under common control with, the Company)  (the “Non-Affiliate Shares”), was equal to or greater than $75 million  (calculated by multiplying (x) the highest price at which the common equity of the Company closed on the Exchange within 60 days of the date of this Agreement times (y) the number of Non-Affiliate Shares).

(bb)         Incorporated Documents. The documents incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when they became effective or were filed with the Commission, as the case may be, conformed in all material respects to the requirements of the Securities Act or the Exchange Act, as applicable, and were filed on a timely basis with the Commission and none of such documents contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; any further documents so filed and incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, when such documents are filed with the Commission, will conform in all material respects to the requirements of the Exchange Act, and will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; provided, however, that this representation and warranty shall not apply to any statements or omissions made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information.

-15-

(cc)          Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company is in compliance with all applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

(dd)         Disclosure Controls. The Company has established and maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-14 and 15d-14 under the Exchange Act) and such controls and procedures are effective in ensuring that material information relating to the Company, including its subsidiaries, is made known to the principal executive officer and the principal financial officer. The Company has utilized such controls and procedures in preparing and evaluating the disclosures in the Registration Statement and in the Prospectus.

(ee)          Anti-Bribery and Anti-Money Laundering Laws. Each of the Company, its subsidiaries, its affiliates and, to the knowledge of the Company, any of their respective officers, directors, supervisors, managers, agents, or employees, has not violated, its participation in the offering will not violate, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries has instituted and maintains policies and procedures designed to ensure continued compliance with, each of the following laws: anti-bribery laws, including but not limited to, any applicable law, rule, or regulation of any locality, including but not limited to any law, rule, or regulation promulgated to implement the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery of Foreign Public Officials in International Business Transactions, signed December 17, 1997, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the U.K. Bribery Act 2010, or any other law, rule or regulation of similar purposes and scope, or anti-money laundering laws, including but not limited to, applicable federal, state, international, foreign or other laws, regulations or government guidance regarding anti-money laundering, including, without limitation, Title 18 US. Code section 1956 and 1957, the Patriot Act, the Bank Secrecy Act, and international anti-money laundering principles or procedures by an intergovernmental group or organization, such as the Financial Action Task Force on Money Laundering, of which the United States is a member and with which designation the United States representative to the group or organization continues to concur, all as amended, and any Executive order, directive, or regulation pursuant to the authority of any of the foregoing, or any orders or licenses issued thereunder.

(ff)           OFAC.

(i)               Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any or their directors, officers or employees, nor, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or its subsidiaries, is an individual or entity that is, or is owned or controlled by an individual or entity that is:

(A)             the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), nor

(B)             located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including, without limitation, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria).

-16-

(ii)             Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries will, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other individual or entity:

(A)            to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any individual or entity or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or

(B)             in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any individual or entity (including any individual or entity participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

(iii)            For the past five years, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has knowingly engaged in, and is not now knowingly engaged in, any dealings or transactions with any individual or entity, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

(gg)         Compliance with Environmental Laws. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries is in violation of any statute, any rule, regulation, decision or order of any Governmental Authority or any court, domestic or foreign, relating to the use, disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or relating to the protection or restoration of the environment or human exposure to hazardous or toxic substances (collectively, “Environmental Laws”), owns or operates any real property contaminated with any substance that is subject to any Environmental Laws, is liable for any off-site disposal or contamination pursuant to any Environmental Laws, or is subject to any claim relating to any Environmental Laws, which violation, contamination, liability or claim would individually or in the aggregate, not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect; and the Company is not aware of any pending investigation which might lead to such a claim. Neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries anticipates incurring any material capital expenditures relating to compliance with Environmental Laws.

(hh)         Compliance with Occupational Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries (A) is in compliance, in all material respects, with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws, rules, regulations, treaties, statutes and codes promulgated by any and all Governmental Authorities (including pursuant to the Occupational Health and Safety Act) relating to the protection of human health and safety in the workplace (“Occupational Laws”); (B) has received all material permits, licenses or other approvals required of it under applicable Occupational Laws to conduct its business as currently conducted; and (C) is in compliance, in all material respects, with all terms and conditions of such permit, license or approval. No action, proceeding, revocation proceeding, writ, injunction or claim is pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened against the Company or any of its subsidiaries relating to Occupational Laws, and the Company does not have knowledge of any facts, circumstances or developments relating to its operations or cost accounting practices that could reasonably be expected to form the basis for or give rise to such actions, suits, investigations or proceedings.

-17-

(ii)            ERISA and Employee Benefits Matters. (A) To the knowledge of the Company, no “prohibited transaction” as defined under Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code and not exempt under ERISA Section 408 and the regulations and published interpretations thereunder has occurred with respect to any Employee Benefit Plan. At no time has the Company or any ERISA Affiliate maintained, sponsored, participated in, contributed to or has or had any liability or obligation in respect of any Employee Benefit Plan subject to Part 3 of Subtitle B of Title I of ERISA, Title IV of ERISA, or Section 412 of the Code or any “multiemployer plan” as defined in Section 3(37) of ERISA or any multiple employer plan for which the Company or any ERISA Affiliate has incurred or would reasonably be expected to incur liability under Section 4063 or 4064 of ERISA. No Employee Benefit Plan provides or promises, or at any time provided or promised, retiree health, life insurance, or other retiree welfare benefits except as may be required by the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1985, as amended, or similar state law. Each Employee Benefit Plan is and has been operated in material compliance with its terms and all applicable laws, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code and, to the knowledge of the Company, no event has occurred (including a “reportable event” as such term is defined in Section 4043 of ERISA) and no condition exists that would subject the Company or any ERISA Affiliate to any material tax, fine, lien, penalty or liability imposed by ERISA, the Code or other applicable law. Each Employee Benefit Plan intended to be qualified under Code Section 401(a) is so qualified and has a favorable determination or opinion letter from the IRS upon which it can rely, and any such determination or opinion letter remains in effect and has not been revoked; to the knowledge of the Company, nothing has occurred since the date of any such determination or opinion letter that is reasonably likely to adversely affect such qualification; (B) with respect to each Foreign Benefit Plan, such Foreign Benefit Plan (1) if intended to qualify for special tax treatment, meets, in all material respects, the requirements for such treatment, and (2) if required to be funded, is funded to the extent required by applicable law, and with respect to all other Foreign Benefit Plans, adequate reserves therefor have been established on the accounting statements of the applicable Company or subsidiary; (C) the Company does not have any obligations under any collective bargaining agreement with any union and no organization efforts are underway with respect to Company employees. As used in this Agreement, “Code” means the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended; “Employee Benefit Plan” means any “employee benefit plan” within the meaning of Section 3(3) of ERISA, including, without limitation, all stock purchase, stock option, stock-based severance, employment, change- in-control, medical, disability, fringe benefit, bonus, incentive, deferred compensation, employee loan and all other employee benefit plans, agreements, programs, policies or other arrangements, whether or not subject to ERISA, under which (1) any current or former employee, director or independent contractor of the Company or its subsidiaries has any present or future right to benefits and which are contributed to, sponsored by or maintained by the Company or any of its respective subsidiaries or (2) the Company or any of its subsidiaries has had or has any present or future obligation or liability; “ERISA” means the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended; “ERISA Affiliate” means any member of the company’s controlled group as defined in Code Section 414(b), (c), (m) or (o); and “Foreign Benefit Plan” means any Employee Benefit Plan established, maintained or contributed to outside of the United States of America or which covers any employee working or residing outside of the United States.

(jj)            Business Arrangements. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, neither the Company nor any of its subsidiaries has granted rights to develop, manufacture, produce, assemble, distribute, license, market or sell its products to any other person and is not bound by any agreement that materially affects the exclusive right of the Company or such subsidiary to develop, manufacture, produce, assemble, distribute, license, market or sell its products.

-18-

(kk)          Labor Matters. No labor problem or dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its subsidiaries exists or, to the Company’s knowledge, is threatened or imminent, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its or its subsidiaries’ principal suppliers, contractors or customers, that would reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(ll)            Restrictions on Subsidiary Payments to the Company. No subsidiary of the Company is currently prohibited, directly or indirectly, from paying any dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution on such subsidiary’s capital stock, from repaying to the Company any loans or advances to such subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any of such subsidiary’s property or assets to the Company or any other subsidiary of the Company, except as described in or contemplated by the Prospectus.

(mm)       Statistical Information. Any third-party statistical and market-related data included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes, after reasonable inquiry, to be reliable and accurate in all material respects.

(nn)         Forward-looking Statements. No forward-looking statement (within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act and Section 21E of the Exchange Act) contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus has been made or reaffirmed without a reasonable basis or has been disclosed other than in good faith.

(oo)         Cybersecurity. The Company and its subsidiaries’ information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its subsidiaries as currently conducted, free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and its subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable physical, technical and administrative controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data, including “Personal Data,” used in connection with their businesses. “Personal Data” means (i) a natural person’s name, street address, telephone number, e-mail address, photograph, social security number or tax identification number, driver’s license number, passport number, credit card number, bank information, or customer or account number; (ii) any information which would qualify as “personally identifying information” under the Federal Trade Commission Act, as amended; (iii) “personal data” as defined by GDPR (as defined below); (iv) any information which would qualify as “protected health information” under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (collectively, “HIPAA”); and (v) any other piece of information that allows the identification of such natural person, or his or her family, or permits the collection or analysis of any data related to an identified person’s health or sexual orientation. There have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and its subsidiaries are presently in material compliance with all applicable laws or statutes and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification.

-19-

(pp)         Compliance with Data Privacy Laws. The Company and its subsidiaries are, and at all prior times were, in material compliance with all applicable state and federal data privacy and security laws and regulations, including without limitation HIPAA, and the Company and its subsidiaries have taken commercially reasonable actions to prepare to comply with, and since May 25, 2018, have been and currently are in compliance with, the European Union General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”) (EU 2016/679) (collectively, the “Privacy Laws”). To ensure compliance with the Privacy Laws, the Company and its subsidiaries have in place, comply with, and take appropriate steps reasonably designed to ensure compliance in all material respects with their policies and procedures relating to data privacy and security and the collection, storage, use, disclosure, handling, and analysis of Personal Data (the “Policies”). The Company and its subsidiaries have at all times made all disclosures to users or customers required by applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements, and none of such disclosures made or contained in any Policy have, to the knowledge of the Company, been inaccurate or in violation of any applicable laws and regulatory rules or requirements in any material respect. The Company further certifies that neither it nor any subsidiary: (i) has received notice of any actual or potential material liability under or relating to, or actual or potential violation of, any of the Privacy Laws, and has no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice; (ii) is currently conducting or paying for, in whole or in part, any investigation, remediation, or other corrective action pursuant to any Privacy Law; or (iii) is a party to any order, decree, or agreement that imposes any obligation or liability under any Privacy Law.

Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to an Agent or to counsel for the Agents pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company, as applicable, to such Agent as to the matters set forth therein.

7.             Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Agents that:

(a)            Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or similar rule), (i) the Company will notify the Agents promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information, (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agents’ reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agents’ reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agents (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agents shall have with respect to the failure to make such filing shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Agents within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agents have not objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Agents to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agents’ right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agents shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to obtain such consent shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agents at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) or, in the case of any document to be incorporated therein by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed (the determination to file or not file any amendment or supplement with the Commission under this Section 7(a), based on the Company’s reasonable opinion or reasonable objections, shall be made exclusively by the Company).

-20-

(b)           Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agents, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agents promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus.

(c)            Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agents under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 or similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions of and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agents promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agents to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay any such amendment or supplement if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the interests of the Company to do so. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such misstatement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not notify the Agents to resume the offering of Placement Shares.

-21-

(d)           Listing of Placement Shares. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company will use its reasonable best efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on the Exchange.

(e)            Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agents and their counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agents may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agents’ request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agents to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f)            Earning Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earning statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act; provided that the Company will be deemed to have furnished such statement to its security holders to the extent it is available on EDGAR.

(g)           Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(h)           Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agents, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agents hereunder and ending on the fifth (5th) Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, Common Stock prior to the sixtieth (60th) day immediately following the termination of this Agreement; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) Common Stock, options to purchase Common Stock or Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options, including any Common Stock sold on behalf of an employee to cover tax withholding obligations, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agents and (iii) Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or research, collaboration, technology license, development, marketing or other similar agreements or strategic partnerships or alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

-22-

(i)             Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during the pendency of a Placement Notice advise the Agents promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document required to be provided to the Agents pursuant to this Agreement.

(j)             Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agents or their representatives in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agents may reasonably request.

(k)            Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, with respect to the Placement Shares, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) (each and every filing date under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agents, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agents with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market.

(l)             Representation Dates; Certificate. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) each time the Company:

(i) amends or supplements (other than a prospectus supplement relating solely to an offering of securities other than the Placement Shares) the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of documents by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

-23-

(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information);

(iii) files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than information “furnished” pursuant to Items 2.02 or 7.01 of Form 8-K or to provide disclosure pursuant to Item 8.01 of Form 8-K relating to the reclassification of certain properties as discontinued operations in accordance with Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 144) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”);

the Company shall furnish the Agents (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if the Agents reasonably determine that the information contained in such Form 8-K is material) with a certificate dated the Representation Date, in the form and substance satisfactory to the Agents and their counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agents and their counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(l) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time a Suspension is in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers instructions for the sale of Placement Shares hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation Date when a Suspension was in effect and did not provide the Agents with a certificate under this Section 7(l), then before the Company delivers the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares or the Agents sell any Placement Shares pursuant to such instructions, the Company shall provide the Agents with a certificate in conformity with this Section 7(l) dated as of the date that the instructions for the sale of Placement Shares are issued.

(m)          Legal Opinion. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agents a written opinion of Cooley LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Agents, in form and substance satisfactory to Agents and their counsel, substantially similar to the form previously provided to the Agents and their counsel, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to Agents no more than one opinion hereunder per calendar quarter; provided, further, that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent periodic filings under the Exchange Act, counsel may furnish the Agents with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that the Agents may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(m) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented as of the date of the Reliance Letter).

-24-

(n)           Comfort Letter. (1) On or prior to the date of the first Placement Notice and (2) within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l) for which no waiver is applicable and excluding the date of this Agreement, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm to furnish the Agents letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(n); provided, that if requested by the Agents, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agents within ten (10) Trading Days of the date of occurrence of any material transaction or event, including the restatement of the Company’s financial statements. The Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall be in a form and substance satisfactory to the Agents, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

(o)           Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or would reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agents.

(p)           Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, required to register as an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

(q)           No Offer to Sell. Other than an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus approved in advance by the Company and the Agents in their capacity as agents hereunder, neither the Agents nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agents in their capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

(r)            Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agents, to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agents may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

-25-

(s)            Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and the Subsidiaries will use reasonable best efforts to maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting their assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s consolidated financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company and the Subsidiaries will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company or the Subsidiaries is made known to them by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared.

(t)            Secretary’s Certificate; Further Documentation. Prior to the date of the first Placement Notice, the Company shall deliver to the Agents a certificate of the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date, certifying as to (i) the charter of the Company, (ii) the bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the Board of Directors of the Company authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement. Within five (5) Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agents such further information, certificates and documents as the Agents may reasonably request.

8.             Payment of Expenses. The Company will pay all reasonable expenses incident to the performance of its obligations under this Agreement, including (i) the preparation and filing of the Registration Statement, including any fees required by the Commission, and the printing or electronic delivery of the Prospectus as originally filed and of each amendment and supplement thereto, in such number as the Agents shall deem necessary, (ii) the printing and delivery to the Agents of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the certificates, if any, for the Placement Shares to the Agents, including any stock or other transfer taxes and any capital duties, stamp duties or other duties or taxes payable upon the sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares to the Agents, (iv) the fees and disbursements of the counsel, accountants and other advisors to the Company, (v) the fees and expenses of the Agents including but not limited to the fees and expenses of the counsel to the Agents, payable within thirty (30) days of the execution of this Agreement, in an amount not to exceed $75,000 in connection with the execution of this Agreement, and $25,000 for each program “refresh” executed pursuant to this Agreement, (vi) the qualification or exemption of the Placement Shares under state securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(r) hereof, including filing fees, but excluding fees of the Agents’ counsel, (vii) the printing and delivery to the Agents of copies of any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus and the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto in such number as the Agents shall deem necessary, (viii) the preparation, printing and delivery to the Agents of copies of the blue sky survey, (ix) the fees and expenses of the transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock, (x) the filing and other fees incident to any review by FINRA of the terms of the sale of the Placement Shares including the fees of the Agents’ counsel (subject to the cap, set forth in clause (v) above), and (xi) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange.

-26-

9.            Conditions to Agents’ Obligations. The obligations of the Agents hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agents of a due diligence review satisfactory to them in their reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agents in their sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a)            Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall have become effective and shall be available for the (i) resale of all Placement Shares issued to the Agents and not yet sold by the Agents and (ii) sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued by any Placement Notice.

(b)           No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state Governmental Authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any statement of a material fact made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain an untrue statement of any material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

-27-

(c)            No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agents shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agents’ reasonable opinion, in consultation with outside counsel, is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agents’ reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(d)           Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that would cause a Material Adverse Effect, or a downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of the Agents (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(e)            Legal Opinions. The Agents shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

(f)            Comfort Letter. The Agents shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(n).

(g)           Representation Certificate. The Agents shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(l) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(l).

(h)           No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on the Exchange and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from the Exchange.

(i)             Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(l), the Company shall have furnished to the Agents such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agents may reasonably request. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents will be in compliance with the provisions hereof.

-28-

(j)             Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.

(k)            Approval for Listing. The Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on the Exchange, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on the Exchange at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice and the Exchange shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

(l)            FINRA. If applicable, FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of this offering and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agents as described in the Prospectus.

(m)           No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agents to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 12(a).

10.           Indemnification and Contribution.

(a)           Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agents, their affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents and each person, if any, who controls the applicable Agent or any affiliate within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act as follows:

(i)              against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, arising out of or based upon any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement (or any amendment thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, or arising out of any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact included in any related Issuer Free Writing Prospectus or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto), or the omission or alleged omission therefrom of a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading;

(ii)             against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense whatsoever, as incurred, joint or several, to the extent of the aggregate amount paid in settlement of any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or of any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission; provided that (subject to Section 10(d) below) any such settlement is effected with the written consent of the Company, which consent shall not unreasonably be delayed or withheld; and

(iii)            against any and all expense whatsoever, as incurred (including the reasonable and documented fees and disbursements of counsel), reasonably incurred in investigating, preparing or defending against any litigation, or any investigation or proceeding by any Governmental Authority, commenced or threatened, or any claim whatsoever based upon any such untrue statement or omission, or any such alleged untrue statement or omission (whether or not a party), to the extent that any such expense is not paid under (i) or (ii) above,

-29-

provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to any loss, liability, claim, damage or expense to the extent arising out of any untrue statement or omission or alleged untrue statement or omission made solely in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent Information.

(b)           Agent Indemnification. Each respective Agent, severally but not jointly, agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 10(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto), the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to such Agent and furnished to the Company in writing by such Agent expressly for use therein. The Company hereby acknowledges that the only information that the Agents have furnished to the Company expressly for use in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) are the statements set forth in the seventh and eighth paragraphs under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus (the “Agent Information”).

(c)            Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 10 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 10, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 10 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provisions of this Section 10 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable and documented costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action or counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, in each case, within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action; in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party (which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld or delayed), settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 10 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an express and unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such litigation, investigation, proceeding or claim and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

-30-

(d)           Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 10(a)(ii) effected without its written consent if (1) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request and (2) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

(e)            Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 10 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or an Agent, the Company and such Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted) to which the Company and the Agents may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agents on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agents on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total net proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agents from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and such Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or such Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and each Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 10(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 10(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 10(e), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 10(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 10(e), no Agent shall be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by such Agent under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 10(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, any affiliates of an Agent and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of an Agent or any of its affiliates, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each director of the Company and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 10(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 10(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 10(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 10(c) hereof. The Agents’ respective obligations to contribute pursuant to this section are several in proportion to the respective number of Placement Shares they have sold hereunder, and not joint.

11.           Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 10 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of any Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

-31-

12.           Termination.

(a)            Either Agent may terminate this Agreement with respect to its own rights and obligations under this Agreement, by notice to the Company, as hereinafter specified at any time (1) if there has been, since the time of execution of this Agreement or since the date as of which information is given in the Prospectus, any change, or any development or event involving a prospective change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the business, properties, earnings, results of operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries considered as one enterprise, whether or not arising in the ordinary course of business, which individually or in the aggregate, in the sole judgment of such Agent is material and adverse and makes it impractical or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (2) if there has occurred any material adverse change in the financial markets in the United States or the international financial markets, any outbreak of hostilities or escalation thereof or other calamity or crisis or any change or development involving a prospective change in national or international political, financial or economic conditions, in each case the effect of which is such as to make it, in the judgment of such Agent, impracticable or inadvisable to market the Placement Shares or to enforce contracts for the sale of the Placement Shares, (3) if trading in the Common Stock has been suspended or limited by the Commission or the Exchange, or if trading generally on the Exchange has been suspended or limited, or minimum prices for trading have been fixed on the Exchange, (4) if any suspension of trading of any securities of the Company on any exchange or in the over-the-counter market shall have occurred and be continuing, (5) if a major disruption of securities settlements or clearance services in the United States shall have occurred and be continuing, or (6) if a banking moratorium has been declared by either U.S. Federal or New York authorities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8 (Payment of Expenses), Section 10 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 11 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 17 (Governing Law and Time; Waiver of Jury Trial) and Section 18 (Consent to Jurisdiction) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If an Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 12(a), such Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 13 (Notices). For the avoidance of doubt, the termination by one Agent of its rights and obligations under this Agreement pursuant to this Section 12(a) shall not affect the rights and obligations of the other Agent under this Agreement.

(b)           The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c)            Each of the Agent shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement, with respect to such Agent’s rights and obligations under this Agreement, in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. For the avoidance of doubt, the termination by one Agent of its rights and obligations under this Agreement pursuant to this Section 12(c) shall not affect the rights and obligations of the other Agent under this Agreement.

-32-

(d)           This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 12(a), (b), or (c) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 8, Section 10, Section 11, Section 17 and Section 18 shall remain in full force and effect.

(e)            Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by an Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement.

13.              Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified, and if sent to the Agents, shall be delivered to:

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention:     Capital Markets

Facsimile:      (212) 307-3730

and:

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

499 Park Avenue

New York, NY 10022

Attention:      General Counsel

Facsimile:       (212) 829-4708

and:

RBC Capital Markets, LLC

Attention: Equity Syndicate

200 Vesey St., 8th Floor

New York, NY 10281

Attention:      TJ Opladen

Facsimile:       (212) 428-6260

Email:

with a copy to:

Covington & Burling LLP

The New York Times Building

620 Eighth Avenue

New York, NY 10018

Attention:     Brian K. Rosenzweig

Telephone:

-33-

and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

Marker Therapeutics, Inc.

3200 Southwest Freeway, Suite 2500

Houston, TX 77027

Attention:     Peter Hoang

Telephone:

with a copy to:

Cooley LLP

55 Hudson Yards

New York, NY 10001

Attention:     Divakar Gupta

Telephone:

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Exchange and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 13 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party under separate cover. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives verification of receipt by the receiving party. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”) which shall be sent to the requesting party within ten (10) days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

14.           Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agents and their respective successors and the parties referred to in Section 10 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agents may assign their rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate thereof without obtaining the Company’s consent.

-34-

15.          Adjustments for Stock Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any stock split, stock dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Placement Shares.

16.           Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agents. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

17.          GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

18.           CONSENT TO JURISDICTION. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION OF THE STATE AND FEDERAL COURTS SITTING IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK, BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN, FOR THE ADJUDICATION OF ANY DISPUTE HEREUNDER OR IN CONNECTION WITH ANY TRANSACTION CONTEMPLATED HEREBY, AND HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, AND AGREES NOT TO ASSERT IN ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING, ANY CLAIM THAT IT IS NOT PERSONALLY SUBJECT TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY SUCH COURT, THAT SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM OR THAT THE VENUE OF SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING IS IMPROPER. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES PERSONAL SERVICE OF PROCESS AND CONSENTS TO PROCESS BEING SERVED IN ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BY MAILING A COPY THEREOF (CERTIFIED OR REGISTERED MAIL, RETURN RECEIPT REQUESTED) TO SUCH PARTY AT THE ADDRESS IN EFFECT FOR NOTICES TO IT UNDER THIS AGREEMENT AND AGREES THAT SUCH SERVICE SHALL CONSTITUTE GOOD AND SUFFICIENT SERVICE OF PROCESS AND NOTICE THEREOF. NOTHING CONTAINED HEREIN SHALL BE DEEMED TO LIMIT IN ANY WAY ANY RIGHT TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW.

-35-

19.           Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Counterparts may be delivered via facsimile, electronic mail (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures Records Act, or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com) or other transmission method and any counterpart so delivered shall be deemed to have been duly and validly delivered and be valid and effective for all purposes.

20.           Construction. The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof. References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any Governmental Authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

21.           Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. The Company represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of each of the Agents (which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld or delayed), and each of the Agents represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the Company, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an Issuer Free Writing Prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a “free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 405, required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agents or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, and has complied and will comply with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping. For the purposes of clarity, the parties hereto agree that all free writing prospectuses, if any, listed in Exhibit A hereto are Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses.

22.           Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a)            the Agents are acting solely as agents in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares and in connection with each transaction contemplated by this Agreement and the process leading to such transactions, and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agents, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether or not the Agents have advised or are advising the Company on other matters, and the Agents have no obligation to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth in this Agreement;

(b)            it is capable of evaluating and understanding, and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

-36-

(c)            none of the Agents nor their affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

(d)           it is aware that the Agents and their affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and the Agents and their affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

(e)            it waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agents or their affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the sale of Placement Shares under this Agreement and agrees that the Agents and their affiliates shall not have any liability (whether direct or indirect, in contract, tort or otherwise) to it in respect of such a fiduciary duty claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on its behalf or in right of it or the Company, employees or creditors of Company.

23.           Definitions. As used in this Agreement, the following terms have the respective meanings set forth below:

Applicable Time” means (i) each Representation Date, (ii) the time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iii) each Settlement Date.

Governmental Authority” means (i) any federal, provincial, state, local, municipal, national or international government or governmental authority, regulatory or administrative agency, governmental commission, department, board, bureau, agency or instrumentality, court, tribunal, arbitrator or arbitral body (public or private); (ii) any self-regulatory organization; or (iii) any political subdivision of any of the foregoing.

Issuer Free Writing Prospectus” means any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433, relating to the Placement Shares that (1) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company, (2) is a “road show” that is a “written communication” within the meaning of Rule 433(d)(8)(i) whether or not required to be filed with the Commission, or (3) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i) because it contains a description of the Placement Shares or of the offering that does not reflect the final terms, in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g).

Rule 164,” “Rule 172,” “Rule 405,” “Rule 415,” “Rule 424,” “Rule 424(b),” “Rule 430B,” and “Rule 433” refer to such rules under the Securities Act Regulations.

All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

-37-

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; all references in this Agreement to any Issuer Free Writing Prospectus (other than any Issuer Free Writing Prospectuses that, pursuant to Rule 433, are not required to be filed with the Commission) shall be deemed to include the copy thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR; and all references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include, without limitation, any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agents outside of the United States.

[Signature Page Follows]

-38-

If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agents, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agents.

Very truly yours,

MARKER THERAPEUTICS, INC.

By: /s/ Peter Hoang
Name:   Peter Hoang
Title:     Chief Executive Officer

ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:

CANTOR FITZGERALD & CO.

By: /s/ Sage Kelly
Name:    Sage Kelly
Title:      Global Head of Investment Banking

RBC CAPITAL MARKETS, LLC

By: /s/ Vincent Lozada
Name:     Vincent Lozada
Title:       Managing Director

[Signature Page to Sales Agreement]

SCHEDULE 1

__________________________

Form of Placement Notice

__________________________

From: Marker Therapeutics, Inc.

To: [Designated Agent] (the “Designated Agent”) Attention: [•]

Subject: Placement Notice

Date: [•], 202[•]

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement among Marker Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC, dated August 10, 2021, the Company hereby requests that the Designated Agent sell up to [•] of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.001 per share, at a minimum market price of $[•] per share, during the time period beginning [month, day, time] and ending [month, day, time].

SCHEDULE 2

__________________________

Compensation

__________________________

The Company shall pay to the Designated Agent in cash, upon each sale of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, an amount equal to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds from each sale of Placement Shares.

SCHEDULE 3

__________________________

Notice Parties

__________________________

The Company

Peter Hoang

Anthony Kim

Michael Loiacono

Cantor Fitzgerald & Co.

Sameer Vasudev

With copies to:

RBC Capital Markets, LLC

TJ Opladen

Form of Representation Date Certificate Pursuant to Section 7(l)

The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected Chief Executive Officer, of Marker Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(l) of the Controlled Equity OfferingSM Sales Agreement, dated August 10, 2021 (the “Sales Agreement”), among the Company, Cantor Fitzgerald & Co. and RBC Capital Markets, LLC that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; provided, however, that such representations and warranties also shall be qualified by the disclosure included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and Prospectus; and

(ii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

Capitalized terms used herein without definition shall have the meanings given to such terms in the Sales Agreement.

Marker therapeutics, inc.

By:  

Name: Peter Hoang

Title: Chief Executive Officer

Date: [•]

Exhibit A

Permitted Free Writing Prospectus

None.

 

Exhibit 4.3

 

Marker Therapeutics, Inc.,
Iss
uer

AND

[TRUSTEE],
Trustee

_______________

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [·], 20__

_______________

 

Debt Securities

 

 

 

 

Table Of Contents

 

    Page

 

article 1   DEFINITIONS 1

 

  Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1

 

article 2   ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES 5

 

  Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 5
       
  Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 8
       
  Section 2.03 Denominations: Provisions for Payment 8
       
  Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications 9
       
  Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 10
       
  Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 11
       
  Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 12
       
  Section 2.08 Cancellation 13
       
  Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 13
       
  Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 13
       
  Section 2.11 Global Securities 14
       
  Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers 15

 

article 3   REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS 15

 

  Section 3.01 Redemption 15
       
  Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 15
       
  Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 16
       
  Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 17
       
  Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 17
       
  Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 17
       
  article 4 COVENANTS 18
       
  Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 18
       
  Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 18
       
  Section 4.03 Paying Agents 19
       
  Section 4.04 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 20

   

i.

 

 

Table Of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page

  

article 5   SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE 20

 

       
  Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 20
       
  Section 5.02 Preservation Of Information; Communications With Securityholders 20
       
  Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 20
       
  Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 21

 

article 6   REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT 21

 

  Section 6.01 Events of Default 21
       
  Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 23
       
  Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 25
       
  Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 25
       
  Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 26
       
  Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 26
       
  Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 27

 

article 7   CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE 27

 

  Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 27
       
  Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 28
       
  Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 30
       
  Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 30
       
  Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 30
       
  Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 31
       
  Section 7.07 Reliance on Officer’s Certificate 31
       
  Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 32
       
  Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 32
       
  Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 32
       
  Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 33
       
  Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 35

 

ii.

 

  

Table Of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page

  

  Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 35
       
  Section 7.14 Notice of Default 35

 

article 8   CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS 35

 

  Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 35
       
  Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 36
       
  Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 36
       
  Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 37
       
  Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 37

 

article 9   SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES 37

 

  Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 37
       
  Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 39
       
  Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 39
       
  Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 39
       
  Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 40

 

article 10   SUCCESSOR ENTITY 40

 

  Section 10.01 Company May Consolidate, Etc. 40
       
  Section 10.02 Successor Entity Substituted 41

 

article 11   SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE 41

 

  Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 41
       
  Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 42
       
  Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 42
       
  Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 42
       
  Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 42

 

article 12   IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS 43

 

  Section 12.01 No Recourse 43
       
  article 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 43
       
  Section 13.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 43
       
  Section 13.02 Actions by Successor 43
       
  Section 13.03 Surrender of Company Powers 44

   

iii.

 

 

Table Of Contents

(continued)

 

    Page

  

  Section 13.04 Notices 44
       
  Section 13.05 Governing Law; Jury Trial Waiver 44
       
  Section 13.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 44
       
  Section 13.07 Certificates and Opinions as to Conditions Precedent 44
       
  Section 13.08 Payments on Business Days 45
       
  Section 13.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 45
       
  Section 13.10 Counterparts 45
       
  Section 13.11 Separability 45
       
  Section 13.12 Compliance Certificates 45
       
  Section 13.13 Patriot Act 45
       
  Section 13.14 Force Majeure 45
       
  Section 13.12 Table of Contents; Headings 45

 

iv.

 

 

 

 

INDENTURE

 

Indenture, dated as of [·], 20__, among Marker Therapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and [Trustee], as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

Whereas, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of debt securities (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series as in this Indenture provided, as registered Securities without coupons, to be authenticated by the certificate of the Trustee;

 

Whereas, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

Whereas, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

Now, Therefore, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

article 1

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01       Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, or that are by reference in such Act defined in the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (except as herein or any indenture supplemental hereto otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Authenticating Agent” means the Trustee or an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state law for the relief of debtors.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors (or the functional equivalent thereof) of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

1

 

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors (or duly authorized committee thereof) and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, the City of New York, or in the city of the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, as from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means Marker Therapeutics, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article Ten, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at                                                                                                                                   .

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Defaulted Interest” has the meaning set forth in Section 2.03.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or 2.11.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series, any event specified in Section 6.01, continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Exchange Act” means the United States Securities and Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations promulgated by the Commission thereunder.

 

The term “given”, “mailed”, “notify” or “sent” with respect to any notice to be given to a Securityholder pursuant to this Indenture, shall mean notice (x) given to the Depositary (or its designee) pursuant to the standing instructions from the Depositary or its designee, including by electronic mail in accordance with accepted practices or procedures at the Depositary (in the case of a Global Security) or (y) mailed to such Securityholder by first class mail, postage prepaid, at its address as it appears on the Security Register (in the case of a definitive Security). Notice so “given” shall be deemed to include any notice to be “mailed” or “delivered,” as applicable, under this Indenture.

 

2

 

 

Global Security” means a Security issued to evidence all or a part of any series of Securities which is executed by the Company and authenticated and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (a) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (b) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof at any time prior to the stated maturity of the Securities, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

herein”, “hereof and “hereunder”, and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed or as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into in accordance with the terms hereof and shall include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

Interest Payment Date”, when used with respect to any installment of interest on a Security of a particular series, means the date specified in such Security or in a Board Resolution or in an indenture supplemental hereto with respect to such series as the fixed date on which an installment of interest with respect to Securities of that series is due and payable.

 

Officer” means, with respect to the Company, the chairman of the Board of Directors, a chief executive officer, a president, a chief financial officer, a chief operating officer, any executive vice president, any senior vice president, any vice president, the treasurer or any assistant treasurer, the controller or any assistant controller or the secretary or any assistant secretary.

 

Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing subject to customary exceptions of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company, that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 13.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

3

 

 

Outstanding”, when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any paying agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any paying agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any paying agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own paying agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as provided in Article Three, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; and (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, joint-stock company, limited liability company, association, trust, unincorporated organization, any other entity or organization, including a government or political subdivision or an agency or instrumentality thereof.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

Responsible Officer” when used with respect to the Trustee means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee (or any successor group of the Trustee) or any other officer of the Trustee customarily performing functions similar to those performed by any of the above designated officers and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and in each case who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

Securities” has the meaning stated in the first recital of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

 

Securityholder”, “holder of Securities”, “registered holder”, or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security is registered on the Security Register kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

Security Register” and “Security Registrar” shall have the meanings as set forth in Section 2.05.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, any corporation, association, partnership or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of capital stock or other interests (including partnership interests) entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers, general partners or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by (i) such Person; (ii) such Person and one or more Subsidiaries of such Person; or (iii) one or more Subsidiaries of such Person.

 

4

 

 

Trustee” means _________________________, and, subject to the provisions of Article Seven, shall also include its successors and assigns, and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended.

 

“U.S.A. Patriot Act” means the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107-56, as amended and signed into law October 26, 2001.

 

article 2

ISSUE, DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01       Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a)               The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1)               the title of the Securities of the series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that series from all other Securities);

 

(2)               any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3)               the maturity date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the series is payable;

 

(4)               the form of the Securities of the series including the form of the certificate of authentication for such series;

 

5

 

 

(5)             the applicability of any guarantees;

 

(6)             whether or not the Securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

(7)             whether the Securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

(8)             if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such Securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such Securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

(9)             the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

(10)           the Company’s right, if any, to defer the payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

(11)           if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, the Company may at its option, redeem the series of Securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

(12)           the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which the Company is obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the Securityholder’s option to purchase, the series of Securities and the currency or currency unit in which the Securities are payable;

 

(13)           the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable, if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof;

 

(14)           any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the Securities of that series and any security for the obligations of the Company with respect to such Securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that series;

 

(15)           whether the Securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a Global Security or Securities; the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such Global Security or Securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual Securities; and the Depositary for such Global Security or Securities;

 

6

 

 

(16)           if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at the Company’s option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange, which may, without limitation, include the payment of cash as well as the delivery of securities;

 

(17)           if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(18)           additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the series of Securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

(19)           additions to or changes in the Events of Default with respect to the Securities and any change in the right of the Trustee or the Securityholders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such Securities to be due and payable;

 

(20)           additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

(21)           additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture;

 

(22)           additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of this Indenture both with and without the consent of Securityholders of Securities issued under this Indenture;

 

(23)           the currency of payment of Securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

(24)           whether interest will be payable in cash or additional Securities at the Company’s or the Securityholders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

(25)           the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Company shall pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the Securities of the series to any Securityholder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

(26)           any restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the Securities of the series; and

 

7

 

 

(27)           any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the Securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of this Indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officer’s Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

Section 2.02       Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution, and set forth in an Officer’s Certificate, and they may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any securities exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

Section 2.03       Denominations: Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(a)(13). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Subject to Section 2.01(a)(23), the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption or repurchase thereof prior to maturity, and any cash amount due upon conversion or exchange thereof, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

8

 

 

Any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1)               The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be sent, to each Securityholder not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been sent as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered in the Security Register on such special record date.

 

(2)               The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities and any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the first day of the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

9

 

 

Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 2.04       Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by one of its Officers. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature.

 

The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been an Officer (at the time of execution), notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be such an officer of the Company. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such sig